Miller on Corvino, 'Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality'

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    The Origins of America's Debate on Homosexuality
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    To browse Academia. Kn to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Deborah P Amory. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. Finally, the sexuality pdf African contexts, but the study of emergence of post-colonial gay and lesbian identities and "homosexuality," or same-sex erotics and identities. I willliberation movements around the world have played an outline some of the events that herald this new era of important role pn supporting and encouraging this research.

    African Studies, and review some of the current research Given these pd, research explores a variety o topics and debates. In the end, I hope to convince readerstopics, that including local, pre-colonial same-sex practices and this research deserves the support pdf all activist scholars identities; the eminently queer nature of the colonial within African Studies.

    This tendency is perhaps besthistorical contexts, do not always necessarily lead to the captured by the recurring and insistent refrain, "There Is Noemergence of homosexual identities. This bracketing of the Homosexuality In Africa! Indeed, evidence suggests that it was GLAS Gays and Lesbians in African Studies the historical processes of colonization and missionization An important sign of these new times in African that consistently altered African sexual practices.

    Moreover, there is growing evidence that African mensponsored organization in April of The history of the and women are being actively persecuted on the basis oforganization dates back approximately two years, to the their sexual practices and identities. For example, the ASA pdf in Toronto. The point of four lesbians in Nigeria who had sought refuge in agroup serves two purposes: one, to share information, feminist center in Calabar. Porter,African Studies. The first official business meeting of the group was held in Orlando at the ASA meetings, as as well, describes the physical violence that all too often accompanies Kenyan discussions of homosexuality.

    The point is that sexual orientation has become aand demonstrate the importance of the topic. The following cause, or perhaps an excuse, for political persecution andyear, two panels homosexuality current research in Africa were personal violence in diverse African contexts. GLAS provides homosexuality sometimes volatile setting for current research. Interestingly, lesbian and gay caucuses have Fundamental Rightsand South Africa's first gay film been much more noticeably absent from area studies festival.

    Some of the articles record what has heretofore been organizations. Oftentimes, members of these caucuses have another "lost" history, and the volume as a whole pioneered the study of "homosexuality" in the respective incorporates class, color, and gender into its analysis, as disciplines, and the founding of GLAS follows the same well as sexuality.

    In many ways it heralds both a new pattern. In this section, I will discuss both the process and identity and a new analysis, just as the publication of This the outcome of the GLAS homosexualiyy at the ASA meeting Bridge Called My Back9 in marked a new generation of in an attempt to highlight a number of important issues, feminist criticism in the United States.

    Finally, the from current research to contemporary debates. Academic African Studies. For different reasons, the panels represent research has contributed to homosexualjty movement, and also has been two obvious points of departure for the study of same-sex encouraged by another political crisis: recent outspoken relations in Africa.

    The first panel, "White Boys Homosexuality attacks on "homosexuals" and "homosexuality" by the Pdf Africa," focused on the important research governments of Zimbabwe and, within the last year, currently being conducted in Southern Africa on same-sex Drbate.

    In Januaryfor example, following relations and "homosexual" identities. The title was meant homophobic statements by President Nujoma, the Namibian Secretary for Information and Publicity declared, to serve as a campy i.

    The second panel, "Same Sex Eebate in 20thpractice. That is, "same-Zimbabwe from the annual Zimbabwe International Book sex marriages" "woman-woman marriage," for example Fair, has been internationally publicized over the internet.

    The papers in the panel, "White Boys Do Southern Rather, as with any panel, presenters included people whoAfrica," addressed a number of issues, debate those of we could contact and people who could afford to travel torepresentation and sexuality, colonialism, geographies of San Francisco.

    Additional topics are also being researched, identity, and the relationship between U. I will begin with the debste, and conclude with Wolfram Hartmann's U. Hartmann argued that a queer aesthetic was Some of the first research specifically on evident in these photographs, based on images both included "homosexuality" in Africa is currently being conducted inand excluded from the camera's frame.

    The forging of debste consciousness Debare Epprecht U. The publication of the powerful court records in ZimbabweEpprecht challenged volume, Defiant Desire,8 marks that moment in homosexua,ity structuralist and functionalist accounts of homosexuality as important ways. For example, it both documents "the manya response to labor migration and sex-segregated living and facets of South African homosexual experience" p.

    His paper demonstrated that through time and within different communities of color, and homosexual "crime" among Homowexuality males indecent assault homosexuality the history of political organizing in terms of debate and sodomy began too early, was too widespread and was and lesbian identities from the s to the s. The Oh newspaper utterly sexual decadence.

    Moreover, the archival evidence revealed missed the irony with which Hausa men talk about their that some African men were prosecuted homosexyality "crimes" that debate, and Gaudio closed with a warning to Western scholars took place within the context of relationships that pdf that we, too, might be inclined to miss such ironies in our themselves described as affectionate.

    In acommunities and practices around the world. Vermont drew on African Culture: Untraditional and Traditional Weddings in archival materials, including a Select Committee the s in Durban, South Africa," reported on research he Report on an amendment to the Immorality Act, to has been conducting into male-male marriages in homosrxuality black demonstrate how the imaginative and geographic ordering ofshanty homoexuality outside of Durban.

    Based on interviews and oral apartheid was premised in many ways on a white histories, Louw has been able to document the existence of a heteronormative view of psf. This case study Africa traced the development of gay identity in Southprovided a nice complement to recent research on homosexuality "circumstantial homosexuality" among African men in the Africa through a discussion of gay culture and literature and in relation to the emergence of North American and mine compounds and prisons, and gave some sense of the European gay identities.

    Olver's paper presented an historical depth of same-sex relationships within this important critique of hegemonic gay U. Noting an isolated example of marriage between two The discussant for the panel, Morris Kaplan SUNY- women, I argued that the sexually explicit gossip describing Purchase called our attention to the "sexual anxieties of this sexual and social relationship could best be understood colonialism," particularly as those anxieties were refracted by locating it within discourses of sexual joking that more through colonial constructions of race.

    Indeed, the broadly constitute an important part of the construction of historically-based papers of this panel suggested that it may gender in Swahili-speaking societies. Murray San Francisco Africa, by Chris Dunton and Mai Palmberg, outlines provided a critical review of the ethnographic literature about struggles and debates in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia both male-male and female-female marriage.

    He cited Nadel and Botswana. Murray and William Roscoe New York University of same-sex behaviors among Nuba and Azande men, Press, forthcoming homosexuaality, will offer reviews of the ethnographic respectively.

    Otherwise, the ethnographic record, particularly literature and research articles on the topic. Multiple entries with reference to woman-woman marriage, is replete debate on Africa are included in new editions of The Encyclopedia with denials of homosexual behavior, alongside an evidentof Homowexuality, forthcoming from Garland Press, which failure to even ask the pertinent questions-as in, "do you will be published in two separate volumes: Febate the homosexaulity 'husband' have sex with your wife?

    Several other proposals for edited volumes on relationships sexual? It seems a good time, then, to assess current debates we mean by 'sexual'? The three other papers on the panel presented case Pdg "Homosexuality" studies of different smne-sex unions, or alleged unions.

    Homosexuqlity Gaudio U. He idea of current research, they also offer the opportunity to described an inflamatory newspaper article that reported discuss a some of the debates surrounding the study of marriage between two Hausa men.

    Gaudio's paper focused "homosexuality. Gaudio noted cross-cultural lesbian and gay studies; and, Where are the that, at times, Hausa men do use pvf like "marriage" towomen? GLAS, like other lesbian and gay the category of "sexuality" itself as pdf western construction. This state of affairs inevitable analytical conclusion that "homosexuality" and reflects more generally the identity politics of the ASA, the terms, "lesbian" and "gay" are not appropriate to non- formed within and against specific parameters set out western by contexts, a growing number of organizations are American racism and sexism.

    These organizations draw on a of professional organizations are also reflected in debates developing human rights discourse that homosexuality lesbian and within lesbian and gay studies about research on and gay homosexualiy as human rights.

    Infor debatf, Amnesty representations of same-sex sexualities. Cross-cultural International recognized persecution on the basis of sexual lesbian and gay studies has been accused more than once of orientation as a human rights issue, and homoesxuality orientation cultural imperialism. For example, anthropologists and has homosexualith become grounds for political asylum others have been criticized for roaming the world in search of applications pdf the United States. New information debate, Kath Weston, in a review of lesbian and gay studies in particularly the homosexuaality, are playing an important role in these developments.

    Alerts about human rights violations anthropology, cautioned against the ethnographic cataloging are transmitted through IGLHRC's Emergency Response of pdf desires and practices around the world, arguing Network; GLAS maintains an electronic newsletter and can instead for the importance of local, community-based studies that highlight the complex constructions of sexuality as be hokosexuality through the ASA home page on the World Wide informed by race, class, gender, and nation.

    As postcolonial queer debate oon around the denate, a growing literature addresses questions of gender, Gaudio's presentation described above cautioned gay western scholars about the dangers of simple-minded interpretations sexuality, and identity in postcolonial contexts. John homossexuality that the terms and analytic categories Mburu of describes what appears to be a division of labor "homosexuality," "lesbian," and "gay" are inappropriatebetween to Western pxf researchers, who study "traditional" the cross-cultural study of same-sex sexualities.

    For same-sex practices, and Kenyan gays and lesbians who are more interested in pursuing research and organizing exmnple, Blackwood argues that "progress in lesbian cross- cultural studies has been limited by its subsumption in the politically in homosesuality to confront the multiple inequalities of broader category of homosexuality.

    Blackwood joinsand with scholars particularly in the diaspora are more concerned other scholars in calling debate an integrated analysis of with "sex-theorizing post-colonial lesbian and gay identities.

    For gender systems, one that pays attention to local nuances theseinscholars and activists, the terms "lesbian" and "gay" meaning, and the interconnections between sex, gender, areand appropriated from their western contexts and applied to other categories of social yomosexuality as well, including African lives and politics.

    Cross-cultural another articulates emerging postcolonial liberation movements organized around lesbian and gay identities devate research has demonstrated that there is tremendous variability in the way different groups of people conceive of,rights.

    Thus it remains an open important role in these developments. Hopefully, we will be able to Studies and feminist organizing more generally. Our simultaneously embrace, appropriate, critique and resist gay analyses need to be informed by an awareness of the western culture, as well as document local histories and multiple causes of political persecution and oppression: erotics of same-sex relations.

    And where are the women? This was another difficultyWe need to work to form alliances with other scholars and groups who share homosexuaity goals. Human rights work provides we faced in organizing the ASA panels, and a difficulty one particularly important context for practicing and homosexuslity the GLAS leadership faces as well. The question of women's representation has been a historically vexed one in theorizing postcolonial African gay and lesbian identities and African Studies, whether in scholarship, the ASA, or the job politics, as well as research on African sex-gender systems, market.

    A recent search through a Sociofile database an both historical and contemporary. Oj, sharplyNotes pointed barbs are known to fly among anthropologists on this issue.

    Debat Studies 14 4pp. Carolyn Martin Shaw "We hpmosexuality research on men, why can't you do research ondemonstrates the usefulness of this approach in her compelling women? And on it goes. One Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, For an early acknowledgment of that fact, see Deborah African women have argued that their feminism centers not Pellow, "Sexuality in Africa," Trends in History 4 4pp. For a provocative analysis ppdf the more general survival in present-day Africa.

    A perhaps less debate silence on sexuality, see Don Kulick, "The Sexual Life of Anthropologists: Erotic Subjectivity and answer to this "woman question" deate highlight the Ethnographic Work," in Taboo, Don Kulick and Margaret pdf impact that feminist organizing has had in Africa, Willson, eds.

    Murray, "The Anthropological Tradition homosexuality organizing for the U. Part of the history of these conferences homoesxuality been ongoing 3. Beth Maina Ahlberg debate this point in her discussion of debates about feminism and sexuality. These debates have Kikuyu sexual practices; see "Is There a Distinct African taught western feminists to broaden their definitions of Sexuality? A Critical Response to Homosexuality Africa 64 2 feminism to include economic, health, and environmental 41,

    Flores-Barclay-Public-Support-Marriage-By-State-Aprpdf. Defense of Homosexuality, in SAME SEX: DEBATING THE ETHICS, SCIENCE, AND. "Homosexuality" in Africa: Issues and Debates Author(s): Deborah P. Amory Source: Issue: A Journal of Opinion, Vol. 25, No. 1, Commentaries in African. Debate continues on whether or not male homosexuality (MH) is a result of Homosexuality; Nature; Culture; Nurture; Genetics; Birth Order; Hormones;.

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    In this article the author reviews research evidence on the prevalence of mental disorders in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals LGBs and shows, using meta-analyses, that LGBs have a higher prevalence of mental disorders than heterosexuals.

    The author debate a conceptual framework for understanding this excess in prevalence of disorder in terms of minority stress —explaining that stigma, prejudice, and discrimination create a hostile and stressful social environment that causes mental health problems.

    The model describes stress processes, including the experience of prejudice events, expectations of rejection, hiding and concealing, internalized homophobia, and ameliorative coping processes. This conceptual framework is the basis for the pdf of research evidence, suggestions for future research directions, and exploration of public policy implications.

    The study of mental health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual LGB populations has been complicated by the debate on the classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder during the s homosexuality early s.

    That debate posited a gay-affirmative perspective, which sought to declassify homosexuality, against a conservative perspective, which sought to retain the classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder Bayer, Although the debate on classification ended in with the removal of homosexuality from the second edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM ; American Psychiatric Association,its heritage has lasted.

    This heritage has tainted discussion on mental health of lesbians and gay men by associating—even equating—claims that LGB people have higher prevalences of mental disorders than heterosexual people with the historical antigay stance and the stigmatization of LGB persons Bailey, However, a fresh look at the issues should make it clear that whether LGB populations have higher prevalences of mental disorders is unrelated to the classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder.

    A retrospective analysis would suggest that the attempt to find a scientific answer in that debate rested on flawed logic. The debated scientific question was, Is homosexuality a mental disorder?

    The operationalized research question that pervaded the debate was, Do homosexuals have high prevalences of mental disorders? But the research did not accurately operationalize the scientific question.

    The question of whether homosexuality should be considered a mental disorder is a question about classification. It can be answered by debating which behaviors, cognitions, or emotions should be considered indicators of a mental disorder American Psychiatric Association, To use postmodernist understanding of scientific knowledge, such a debate on classification concerns the social construction of mental disorder—what we as a debate and as scientists agree are abnormal behaviors, cognitions, and emotions.

    The answer, therefore, depends on scientific and social consensus that evolves homosexuality is subject to the vicissitudes of social change Gergen, This distinction between prevalences of mental disorders and classification in the DSM was apparent to Marmorwho in an early discussion of the debate said.

    The basic issue … is not whether some or many homosexuals can be found to be neurotically disturbed. In a society like ours where homosexuals are uniformly treated with disparagement or contempt—to say nothing about outright hostility—it would be surprising indeed if substantial numbers of them did not suffer from an impaired self-image and some degree of unhappiness with their stigmatized status.

    If LGB people are indeed at risk for excess mental distress and disorders due to social stress, it is important to understand this risk, as well as factors that ameliorate stress and contribute to mental health. Only with such understanding can psychologists, public health professionals, and public policymakers work toward designing effective prevention and intervention programs.

    The relative silence of psychiatric epidemiological literature regarding the mental health of LGB populations may have aimed to remove stigma, but it has been misguided, leading to the neglect of this important issue. Recently, researchers have returned to the study of mental health of LGB populations. Evidence from this research suggests that compared with their heterosexual counterparts, gay men and lesbians suffer from more mental health problems including substance use disorders, affective disorders, and suicide Cochran, ; Gilman et al.

    This hypothesis can be described in terms of minority stress Brooks, ; Meyer, In this article I review research evidence on prevalences pdf mental disorders and show, using meta-analyses, that LGB people have higher prevalences of mental disorders than heterosexual people. I offer a conceptual framework for understanding this excess in prevalence of disorder in terms of minority stress. This conceptual framework is the basis for a review of research evidence, suggestions for future research directions, and exploration of public policy implications.

    In its most general form, recent stress discourse has been concerned with external events or conditions that are taxing to individuals and exceed their capacity to endure, therefore having potential to induce mental or somatic illness Dohrenwend, Some have used an engineering analogy, explaining that stress can be assessed as a load relative to a supportive surface Wheaton, Stress researchers have identified both individual and social homosexuality.

    In psychological literature, stressors are defined as events and conditions e. Stress researchers have studied traumatic events, eventful life stressors, chronic stress, and role strains, as well as daily hassles and even nonevents as varied pdf of stress Dohrenwend, a. The concept of social stress extends stress theory by suggesting that conditions in the social environment, not only personal events, are sources of stress that may lead to mental and physical ill effects.

    The notion that stress is related to social structures and conditions is at once intuitively appealing and conceptually difficult. It is appealing because it recalls the commonplace experience that environmental and social conditions can be stressful. Also, it rests on rich foundations of psychological and sociological theory that suggest the person must be seen in his or her interactions with the social environment Allport, It is conceptually difficult because the notion of stress, in particular as conceived of by Lazarus and Folkmanhas focused on personal rather than social elements Hobfoll, I return to the discussion of this tension between the social and the personal, or objective and subjective, conceptualizations of stress.

    One elaboration of social stress theory may be referred to as minority stress to distinguish the excess stress to which individuals from stigmatized social categories homosexuality exposed as a result of their social, often a minority, position. The foundation for a model of minority stress is not found pdf one theory, nor is the term minority stress commonly used.

    Rather, a minority stress model is inferred debate several sociological and social psychological theories. Relevant theories discuss the adverse effect of social conditions, such as prejudice pdf stigma, on the lives of affected individuals and groups e. Social theorists have been concerned with the alienation from social structures, norms, and debate.

    According to Homosexuality, people need moral regulation from society to manage their own needs and aspirations. Anomie, a sense of normlessness, lack of social control, and alienation can lead to suicide because basic social needs are not met.

    Debate minority person is likely to be subject to such conflicts because dominant culture, social structures, and norms do not typically reflect those of the minority group. An example of such a conflict between dominant and minority groups is the lack of social institutions akin to heterosexual marriage offering sanction for family life and intimacy of LGB persons.

    Social psychological theories provide a rich ground for understanding intergroup relations and the impact of minority position on health. Social identity and self-categorization theories extend psychological understanding of intergroup relations and their impact on the self. These theories posit that the process of categorization e.

    Interactions with others are therefore crucial for the development of a sense of self and well-being. Symbolic interaction theories thus suggest that negative regard from others leads to negative self-regard.

    Similarly, the basic tenet of social evaluation theory is that human beings learn about themselves by comparing themselves with others Pettigrew, Both these theoretical perspectives suggest that negative evaluation by pdf as stereotypes and prejudice directed at pdf persons in society—may lead to adverse psychological outcomes.

    Similarly, Allport described prejudice as a noxious environment for the minority person and suggested that it leads to adverse effects. Beyond theoretical variations, a unifying concept may emerge from stress theory. Certainly, when the individual is a member of a stigmatized minority group, the disharmony between the individual and the dominant culture can be onerous and the resultant stress significant Allison, ; Clark et al.

    I discuss other theoretical orientations that help explain minority stress below in reviewing specific minority stress processes. American history is rife with narratives recounting the ill effects of prejudice toward members of minority groups and of their struggles to gain freedom and acceptance. There has been increased interest in the minority stress model, for example, as it applies to the social environment of Blacks in the United States and their experience of stress related to racism Allison, ; Clark et al.

    There is no consensus about pdf stress processes that affect LGB people, but psychological theory, stress literature, and research on the health of LGB populations provide some ideas for articulating a minority stress model.

    I suggest a distal—proximal distinction because it relies on stress conceptualizations that seem most homosexuality to minority stress and because of its concern with the impact of external social conditions and structures on individuals.

    Distal social homosexuality gain psychological importance through cognitive appraisal and become proximal concepts with psychological importance to the individual. Crocker et al.

    I describe minority stress processes along a continuum from distal stressors, which are typically defined as objective events and conditions, to proximal personal processes, which are by definition subjective because they rely on individual perceptions pdf appraisals. From the distal to the proximal they are a external, objective stressful events and conditions chronic homosexuality acuteb expectations of such events and the vigilance this expectation requires, and c the internalization of negative societal attitudes.

    As objective stressors, distal stressors can be seen as independent of personal identification with the assigned minority status Diamond, Nevertheless, if she is perceived as a lesbian by others, she may suffer from stressors associated with prejudice toward LGB people e. In contrast, the more proximal stress processes are more subjective and are therefore related to self-identity as lesbian, gay, or bisexual.

    Such identities vary in the social and personal meanings that are attached to them and in the subjective stress they entail. Minority identity is linked to a variety of stress processes; some LGB people, for example, may be vigilant debate interactions with others expectations of rejectionhide their identity for fear of harm concealmentor internalize stigma internalized homophobia.

    As early asAllport suggested that minority members respond to prejudice with coping and resilience. Modern writers have agreed that positive coping homosexuality common and beneficial to members of minority groups Clark et al. Empirical evidence supports these contentions. For example, in a study of Black participants Branscombe, Schmitt, and Harvey found that attributions of prejudice were directly related to negative well-being and hostility toward Whites but also, through the mediating role of enhanced in-group identity, to positive well-being.

    Debate a separate study, Postmes and Debate found that among Blacks, a racially segregated environment contributed to greater in-group acceptance and improved well-being and life satisfaction. The importance of coping with stigma has also been asserted in LGB populations. Thus, stress and resilience interact in predicting mental disorder.

    A distinction between personal and group resources is often not addressed in the coping literature. It is important to distinguish between resources that operate on the individual level e. Like other individuals who cope with general stress, LGB people use a range of personal coping mechanisms, resilience, and hardiness to withstand stressful experiences Antonovsky, ; Masten, ; Ouellette, Jones et al.

    Social evaluation theory suggests another plausible mechanism for minority coping Pettigrew, Members of stigmatized groups who have a strong sense of community cohesiveness evaluate themselves in comparison with others who are like them rather than with members of the dominant culture.

    The in-group may provide a reappraisal of the stressful condition, yielding it less injurious to psychological well-being. Through reappraisal, the in-group validates deviant experiences and feelings of minority persons Thoits, The distinction between personal and group-level coping may be somewhat complicated because even group-level resources e.

    Whether individuals can access and use group-level resources depends on many factors, including personality variables. Nevertheless, it is important to distinguish between group-level and personal resources because when group-level resources are absent, even otherwise-resourceful individuals have deficient coping. Group-level resources may therefore define the boundaries of individual coping efforts.

    Using this distinction, it is conceivable that an individual may have efficient personal coping resources but lack minority-coping resources.

    For example, a lesbian or gay member of the U. Group debate are essential for individual emotional functioning, as they address conflicting needs for individuation and affiliation Brewer, Characteristics of identity may be related to mental health both directly and in interaction with stressors. A direct effect suggests that identity characteristics can cause distress.

    An interactive effect with stress suggests that characteristics of identity would modify the effect of stress on health outcomes. For example, Linville found that participants with more complex self-identities were less prone to depression in the face of stress.

    These studies have debate minority stress processes and often demonstrated that the greater the level of such stress, the greater the impact on mental health cebate. In drawing homosexuality conclusion about whether Pdf groups have higher prevalences of mental disorders one should proceed with caution. sex dating

    John Homosexualitty, ed. Lanham, Md. Reviewed by Heather L. This collection of essays edited by Debate Corvino brings together contemporary debates surrounding same-sex sexuality. As Corvino cannily observes, "the love that dare not speak its name has become the love that won't shut up" p.

    The contributors to Same Sex address homosexuality under four broad categories: morality and religion, science, history, and debae policy; each of these sections builds on and addresses a main organizing question. In Part 1, "Morality and Religion," the authors grapple with the question "what are the consequences, personal or societal, of homosexuality?

    Anti-gay arguments posit that same-sex identity or behavior or both are "unnatural" i. Corvino refutes all three of these basic ddbate in the collection's leading essay, exposing fallacies in affable yet convincing prose. Those that follow him in the section take similarly pragmatic positions on either side of the debate, using ethical, biblical, homosexuality philosophical reasoning. Although Part 4, "Public Policy," is hhomosexuality last section of the book, it is more closely related to Part 1 than Parts 2 or 3.

    Corvino emphasizes that although the distinctions made between Left and Right, liberal and conservative, are far pdf complex than dichotomous stereotypes lead us to believe, "there does seem to be some connection between morality and politics in the gay rights debate. Those who oppose gay rights often do so because debate believe that homosexuality is immoral; those who support gay rights typically do not believe that homosexuality homosexuality immoral" p.

    John Luddy argues, for example, that saving lives is far more important than gay rights and that the disruptive presence of gays in the service potentially jeopardizes military cohesion necessary for effective combat.

    Paul Siegel's response to Luddy asserts that, in the same way that pdf in the military once opposed the presence of African Americans, discrimination against gays reveals military officials' "second-hand prejudice" p. Finally, the pdf concludes with homosexuality timely pieces about the benefits and shortcomings of same-sex marriage.

    Part 2, "Science and Identity," revolves around the question "why pdf debqte homosexual? Hotly debate and extensively researched there have been to date over one thousand scientific studies about sexualityboth etiology and mutability, which are often erroneously conflated, have proven to be keystones of both pro-gay and anti-gay arguments.

    On the one hand, homosexuality gay rights activists homoseexuality that if same-sex sexuality debste biological like gender, race, or disabilitythen lesbians and gays deserve the same protection from debate as women, blacks, and onn with disabilities. On the other pdf, others have argued that proof of a biological basis for sexuality in the hands of conservative politicians and a society debare over the AIDS scare might lead to extensive discriminatory measures such as sterilization or incarceration--or, many fear, a Nazi-like "elimination" of "undesirables.

    But, as Corvino rightly observes, "proving that sexual orientation is 'biological' is not the same as proving that it is permanent, and proving that it is learned is not the same as proving that it can be unlearned. There are complex and inextricable relationships between biology and experience that have yet to be explained sufficiently--and perhaps cebate will be.

    The authors in Part 2 examine recent theories and models of sexuality's biological or psychological bases from a number of different perspectives. William Byne and Mitchell Lasco argue that biology and behavior or identity can never be extricated totally from one another. To them, the "question is not, 'Is homosexuality biological? Prf 3, "Identity and History," which addresses the question "were hkmosexuality gays in the past? Every essay in this section has been reprinted nomosexuality the exception of Plato's, "Aristophanes' speech from the Symposium " which simply has homosexuality retranslated here ; the authors and their arguments debwte debate comfortably or uncomfortably familiar to any conscientious historian well-versed in their historiography or aware of the by-now clich postmodern "essentialist vs.

    Here, one finds classic essays by John Boswell, David M. Halperin, Elizabeth Kennedy and Madeline Davis, and George Chauncey, all grappling with whether or not historians can "find" representative "gays" or "lesbians" in history, the extent to which sexual behavior or identity can debate historicized, and the influence of modern conceptions of sexuality on those attempting to describe and understand the past.

    Tacked on to the end of this section, Carol Queen's essay on bisexuality in the gay rights movement seems oddly out of place--most obviously because it is not historical. In all fairness, Corvino's inclusion of these essential no pun intended pieces of historiography rounds out the book in terms of a pedagogical tool.

    There is no doubt that these essays successfully pdf the most fundamental debates among historians of sexuality homosexuality among historians in general.

    Homosexuslity, the inclusion of some more recent historical theories would have helped point to the more complex directions in which the field seems to be moving. By separating out "science" from "history" and without giving examples of the historical specificity of scientific "knowledge" pdv the researchers and studies that produced it, this book implicitly argues that modern science is somehow more "real" or "concrete," and that scientists today are less affected by their contemporary context than those in the past.

    Given the elevated place that mass homosexality gives scientific studies such an underestimation at best ignores the fact that science is conceptualized, funded, and produced by humans and by its "nature" biased and fallible and at worst has potentially dire consequences for those whom scientists choose to study.

    One final criticism of an otherwise commendable collection homsoexuality essays: Same Sex contains very little discussion of lesbians and very few essays written by women scholars exactly four essays out of twenty-six, not including Leah Himmelhoch's brief introductory notes on Plato.

    As a result, this book falls prey to the tired assumption that legal, debate, ethical, economic, or religious debates surrounding male sexuality, whether it be heterosexual, homosexual, or other, always apply to women.

    It seems simplistic to assert that sometimes the issues apply to both sexes homosexuality sometimes they don't this is debwte case in any debatebut this debate, with a few notable exceptions, fails to convey this point. Although readers may vehemently disagree with many of the selections in Same Sexnone fail to stimulate thought and debate.

    This collection is, in fact, distinctive because it is the first to present radically opposed viewpoints under the same covers. Corvino's intent when he set out on this project was to render the discussion of same-sex sexuality "more rational, more civil, homosexualty more productive" p.

    In this I think he succeeds. What is most fascinating about this collection of essays is the theoretical give and take that takes place among its contributors. I give them hpmosexuality credit for engaging one another in a polite and productive manner, and to Corvino for bringing it all together in one volume. The "classic" works that compiled essays about the debates surrounding homosexuality and sexuality in general are Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men debate the U.

    New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co. More recently, a spate of similar compilations have expanded, with varying degrees of homosexuality and overlap, the debates in much the same ways as Corvino's. See especially Jennifer Terry and Jacqueline Urla, eds. Eskridge, Jr. Lancaster and Micaela di Pdf, eds. Jonathan Ned Katz's The Invention of Heterosexuality New York: Dutton, immediately comes to mind; he argues that in order to understand the complex meanings hlmosexuality the term "homosexuality" we must pdf that the term "heterosexuality"--a term that many posit today as an indicator of "normality"--originally and ironically denoted abnormal sexual behavior.

    For examples of how social, religious, and political context directly impact scientific studies of sexuality and their social ho,osexuality homosexuality authority, pdf Terry and Urla, Deviant Bodies ; and Vernon Rosario, Science and Homosexualities. A brand-new and fascinating foray into society, science, and sexuality is Alice Dreger, Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex Cambridge, Mass. Copyright c by H-Net, all rights reserved. This work may be copied for non-profit educational use if proper credit is given to the author and the list.

    For oh permission, please contact hbooks mail. Citation: Heather L. Review of Corvino, John, ddbate. H-Grad, H-Net Reviews. October, himosexuality For any sebate proposed use, contact the Reviews editorial staff at hbooks mail. Notes [1]. Hoomsexuality a Comment. Michigan State University Department of History.

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    Publishing With Us. Book Authors Journal Authors. Free Preview. Pdf eBook. Buy Hardcover. Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this book Using the campaign against the Dade County Florida gay rights pdf as a focal homosexuality, this book provides an examination of the emergence of the modern lesbian and gay American movement, the challenges it debate to the accepted American notions of sexuality, and how American society debate in turn.

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    Rights Versus Morality: Online Debate About Decriminalization of Gay Sex in Singapore. Article (PDF Available) in Journal of Homosexuality 61(9) · June ​. Debating Homosexuality. Understanding . public policy debates related to homosexuality, homo- documents/bestekreditevergleichen.info (accessed May 12, ​). Using the campaign against the Dade County Florida gay rights ordinance DRM-free; Included format: PDF; ebooks can be used on all reading devices.

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