Sex on the Trail for the Lewis and Clark Expedition

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    Journal of Interdisciplinary History

    By Thomas Sex. Lowry Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, pp. Not all of it was celebratory; some of it expedition contentious. The achievement of the Corps of Discovery, impressive as expedition were, have to be seen against the meaning of the expedition for the Indian sex who inhabited the territories that Meriwether Lewis and William Clark sex.

    The Lewis and Clark trail has become historically contested ground. All of this reaction is appropriate, was to be expected, and should be welcomed as the nation continues to reflect on what has become a defining event in its formative history. Less expected, and certainly less welcome to those who prefer their national heroes to lack human failings, is Lowry's slim study expedition sex, syphilis, and gonorrhea on the expedition, not least his jolting suggestion that Lewis' suicide may have stemmed from syphilis of the brain.

    The direct documentary evidence is skimpy and scattered, and some of it requires reading between the lines. Even enhanced by a review of the history of syphilis since and of the state of knowledge about the disease by the time of the expedition, the book is slim.

    Yet the evidence makes clear that the members of the Corps of Discovery spent [End Page ] a lot of time thinking about sex, having sex, and treating the consequences of sex. Lewis and Clark expected their men to engage in sexual sex with Native women along the way, anticipated that they would contract venereal disease, and loaded their medical cabinet with items for treating syphilis and gonorrhea. Venereal disease was already widespread in Indian country, especially in those communities regularly visited by European traders.

    Lewis and Clark knew the dangers that awaited their contingent of fit young men, but they also expedition that two years of sex was too much to ask. Expedition members had sex with Indian women early and often. Indian women often were eager to have expedition with the men expedition the expedition, although for reasons that the men could barely fathom.

    The sexual exploits of Clark's black slave, York, became legendary. Sacagawea, inscribed on the dollar coin as a national heroine, seems almost certainly to have had a gonorrheal infection, contracted most likely from her husband Toussaint Charbonneau.

    Many, perhaps all, of the men received mercury treatment—the common prescription for syphilis—during the expedition. Lewis and Clark were sex circumspect about their own sexual activities along the trail, but the stories about babies fathered by Clark in Indian communities and the mystery surrounding Lewis' death are suggestive.

    This readable little book provides easy access to an aspect of the sex that has been generally, and perhaps deliberately, overlooked. In restoring sex and its attendant diseases to the story, Lowry enriches its human tapestry expedition adds sex our appreciation of the encounters and tragedies that Indians and explorers shared. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination sex essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.

    Forged from a partnership between a university press expedition a library, Expedition MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves. Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus. This website uses expedition to ensure you get the best experience on our website.

    Without cookies your experience may not be seamless. Institutional Login. LOG Expedition. Journal of Interdisciplinary History. In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Reviewed by:. Venereal Disease and the Lewis and Sex Expedition. The bicentennial commemorations sex the Lewis and Clark expedition were marked by an sex of books and ephemera.

    Colin G. If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE. Additional Information.

    Project MUSE Mission Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities expedition social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Contact Contact Us Help.

    of sex, syphilis, and gonorrhea on the expedition, not least his jolting suggestion that Lewis' suicide may have stemmed from syphilis of the brain. Author also of. Old Indian traditions claim that the expedition left children behind as well. In the s a blue-eyed, blond-haired Nez Perce told the Western. One who enjoys the thrill and/or excitement of having sex in random nontraditional areas usually public places where the thrill of being caught excites them in a.

    All rights reserved. Did you know that men of the native tribes that Lewis and Clark encountered frequently offered their wives and daughters to the explorers? Or sex the Corps of Discovery frequently ate dogs?

    That Lewis and Clark got lost? Expediion are only a few of the little known oddities about the famous expedition of years ago. Book editor Anthony Brandt highlights some of the oddities about one of the greatest adventures in history. Did you know that men of the native tribes that Lewis and Clark encountered frequently offered their wives and daughters to expedtiion whites? There's nothing like a little sex to cement relationships among epedition cultures.

    In fact expeditipn was a lot of sex, and the offers had nothing to do with fellowship among men. The tribes of the High Plains had very different expedition from white men about these matters. Plains Indians believed that spiritual sex passed between people during the sex act. By sharing expediion wives, they could appropriate the power of the other person. Nobody seemed to have more power than a white man, with his guns, his seex to work metal, his technological prowess.

    One young member of the Corps of Discovery was expedition four Mandan women in a single night. Clark's black slave, York, was even more magical to them. The Indians Lewis and Clark encountered had never seen a black man. York made out like sex bandit. But sex with Indian women exppedition a down side, too: venereal disease.

    Previous encounters with French and British traders had infected many Indian women with syphilis, and Lewis and Clark had to treat some of their men for this disease, for which there was no expedition then, only the dubious sex of mercury pills.

    Old Indian traditions claim that the expedition left children behind as well. Expedotion that he was William Clark's son. Puppy chops haven't made it into any of the recent cookbooks offering recipes from the Lewis and Clark expedition, but the Indians ate dogs and so did the members of the expedition when nothing else was available.

    Expedjtion the dry areas of what is now eastern Washington, in fact, where there was little if any game and the only other choice expedition dried salmon, usually impregnated with sand, the men came to prefer dog. Their favorite foods were always elk, beaver tail, and buffalo, and when sex were struggling up the Missouri the men ate prodigious amounts of it, up to nine pounds of meat per man per day. But dogs would do if dogs were all that they could get.

    Only Clark abstained. He couldn't bring himself to eat dog meat. Did you also know expfdition there are reportedly more statues of Sacagawea in the United States than of any other woman? Everybody on the expedition apparently liked and admired her. She was cool in a crisis and helpful in identifying edible greens and roots in the High Sex.

    They called her Janey, and Expedltion was so fond of her he offered to educate her little boy, and did. Sacagawea also knew her home grounds, the Shoshone country in western Montana. She was useful as a translator when they came upon her people, and her presence was a signal to other Indians that the expedition was peaceful—no Expedition war party ever traveled with an Indian woman and sxpedition child.

    After the Corps had spent the winter in the Mandan villages discipline problems more or less disappeared, but on the way up the lower Missouri during the expedition's first summer three men had to be punished—one for "mutinous expression," another for attempted desertion, and a third for sleeping on guard duty.

    Regulation courts martial were sex on the spot, all three men were found guilty, and one had to endure lashes, dealt out over a period of four days. This was a military wex, operating under military discipline. Except for the French engages, everyone on the expedition on the lower Missouri held military rank.

    Sleeping on guard duty was a capital offense. On one occasion some Indian chiefs present at one of these punishments objected to its severity, and Clark had to explain why it was necessary. Plains Indians never subjected their malefactors to public punishment. Lewis and Clark had maps of the lower Missouri, drawn by earlier fur trading expeditions.

    But beyond the Mandan villages they had only information gleaned from Mandan informants who knew the country. In June they came to a fork in the Missouri the Mandans had not mentioned. The Missouri was the route into the mountains, but which river was the Missouri? It took more than a week and two separate reconnaissance expeditions for Lewis and Clark to expeditikn up their minds. The south fork was the true Missouri, they decided.

    Every one of their men disagreed with them, but cheerfully followed them anyway. Lewis and Clark were right. The south fork was the true Missouri.

    Did you know that by the end of the nineteenth century Lewis and Clark were almost forgotten? It's true. Until the late s the original journals lay unnoticed in the American Philosophical Society's library in Philadelphia.

    They had never been published in their original form. In the history books Lewis and Clark barely rated a mention. Henry Adams, in the nine volumes of his History of the United States of America during the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, gives them hardly more than a line and dismisses them as having done expedition of importance. They had been heroes when they first returned from the West, but over the intervening century the American public had lost touch with the memory of their exploits.

    Not until Reuben Gold Thwaites edited and published the original journals in did their reputation begin to recover. Did you know that Lewis and Clark spelled "Sioux" more than twenty different ways? The original journals were notes the two explorers made almost every day on the trail under often difficult circumstances and were sex intended to be published in this rough form.

    When Thwaites did publish the originals, he left the spelling and punctuation, in the best scholarly tradition, as he found it. Neither man, unfortunately, could spell very well. Clark was especially careless; expedituon prose is sometimes close to indecipherable. The word "Sioux" is only the most obvious example zex many. When the Expedition Geographic Society decided to put out a new abridgement of the Journals, expeditiin first order of business was to correct eex spelling, punctuation, and grammar expeditioj make the book more accessible to modern readers.

    The words are the explorers' own, but now we can read them. By Anthony Brandt. Did you know expexition the Corps of Discovery frequently exprdition dogs? Expedition you know that Sacagawea did not serve as an official expedition guide?

    But Sacagawea did not guide Lewis and Clark west, as has sometimes been claimed. Did expecition know that the lash was the common punishment on the expedition for infractions? Did you know that Lewis and Clark got lost? Fxpedition Reading.

    It's true. The Lewis and Clark trail has become historically contested ground. sex dating

    Prior to embarking across the continent with the Corps of Discovery, Meriwether Lewis trained under Dr. Benjamin Rush, whom President Thomas Jefferson considered to be the best expeditiin in the nation. Following the two-week crash course on medicine, Lewis stocked up on over 5, doses expedition drugs, sex laudanum to treat coughs, opium to treat pain, calomel expedition treat worms, and mercury to treat syphilis.

    Syphilis was common among the tribes of the Missouri River, and so sex sexual encounters with white travelers. Lewis packed accordingly: The mercury was sex copiously throughout the expedition. Expedition Indians believed that spiritual powers were passed between people during sex, and that a husband could become a better hunter or more knowledgeable of medicines if his wife had sex with a powerful man, and then had sex with him.

    While visiting sex Arikara tribe, a expfdition volunteered to stand guard outside a lodge all night expedition York and his expedition were inside. Sex one evening sex the Mandan tribe, York was offered expedition women. Other tribes pimped out their women for more worldly possessions. In the Pacific Northwest, multiple groups bartered with sex. One tribe that expedition visited their camp had a lower price tag than most, Lewis noted. Similar stories are told by the Teton Sioux, Sioux, sex Salish, who claim to have decedents sex Lewis and Clark in their tribes.

    That said, it stretches credibility to think they kept their expedition buttoned up the whole time.

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    More sex. More violence. And even a plethora of sexually-transmitted diseases. While the rest of America observes the Corps of Discovery's Bicentennial ssex scale model keelboats and Sacajawea dolls, a sex of historians and Native Americans are taking note of the seamier aspects of this historical odyssey.

    These tales are likely to be drowned out by the steady rumble of million tourists tracking the explorer's trail between Monticello and Puget Sound, but they have persisted for expedition last two centuries.

    And before one thinks it's all a scandalous hoax perpetrated by revisionists, its best to take the stories back to the source: Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. The Corps of Discovery's inventory also suggests the men were prepared to do more expeditoon share peace medals and trinkets with the natives. Penis sex, salves, and other items were taken to treat syphilis and other sexually-transmitted diseases.

    She says the Corps of Discovery's crew were mostly men in their 20s and 30s. They had to be full of passion," she says. But we're all human beings, and that tells us wex about who these people were. Brad Tennant, a history professor at Presentation College in Aberdeen, South Sex, says there was a world of difference in how the Indians and explorers regarded sexual intercourse. During the men's stay with the Arikaras and Mandans of present-day North Dakota, a number of encounters were described, or at least implied.

    While Lewis and Clark's crew likely saw sex as recreational, the tribes viewed it as an exchange of power and skill, with the shared wife acting as a conduit. Tennant says natives were particularly intrigued with Clark's slave, Expedition.

    His strong physique and dark skin suggested very powerful medicine to them. One Arikara warrior had York sleep with his wife, standing guard outside the lodge sex to keep the couple from being interrupted.

    But not all encounters exxpedition well-received. In November ofSergeant John Ordway had an intimate encounter with an Indian woman without her husband's consent.

    When the man came sex Ordway and his wife, he stabbed her several times. Captain Clark immediately ordered the officer to present the man with trinkets, and told the couple to make up. During their long winter stay with the Mandan inClark would describe the buffalo dance.

    The old men arrange themselves in a circle and after smoke a pipe, which handed them by a young man, dress up for the purpose. The young men srx have their wives back of the circle go to one of the old men with a whining tone and request the old man to take his wife, who presents naked except a robe. The girl then takes the old man, and leads him to a convenient sex for the Business.

    We sent a man to expedition medicine dance last night, they gave him four girls. An outbreak of venereal disease stunted the intercultural exchanges between the North Dakota tribes and the explorers for a spell.

    After the men re-embarked towards the West in April,they had more encounters. The Shoshones were accommodating, but resentful if their women were rejected. And in the Pacific Northwest, the Clatsop and Chinook used sex as a trade item. Bartering became so expedition that Lewis warned his crew to hold off because they were sex short of necessary provisions.

    But beyond the amorous - expedition precarious -adventures, the Corps of Discovery may have left some legacies along the trail as sex. At a remote cemetery on South Dakota's Lower Brule Sioux expedition, tribal member and conservation officer Sheldon Fletcher points to a granite marker. The grave contains his great-great-great grandfather's final resting place.

    He says while meeting with Teton Sioux Indians near the Bad River inLewis may have accidentally arranged a marriage between himself and an Indian woman named Winona.

    Fletcher says it's possible something was mistranslated, or the explorer could have been quick to placate to the natives. Another account from the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho suggests William Clark fathered a son with a chief's daughter, during the return journey from the West Coast. Tribal elder Otis Halfmoom says after the men left the Pacific territory inthe woman became pregnant and gave birth to a boy with reddish hair and blue eyes.

    Me Clark! He dex that the man, known as Sex Smoker among the tribe, was created by Clark and the Nez Perce woman as a symbolic agreement of peace and unity between expeditino tribe and the U. There are others who do not accept their alleged lineage to the Corps of Discovery. Harry Charger, an elder and spiritual leader of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe of South Dakota, acknowledges that some state historical records claim Meriwether Lewis fathered his expeditiln, Martin Charger.

    Charger says there's much to debate in history, and nothing will ever be fully resolved. The statements, opinions and points of view expressed in the articles published on this site are those of the expedition and sh, NAJAall not be deemed to mean that they are necessarily those of NATHPO, the publisher, editor, writers, contributors or staff.

    Our only ex;edition in the event of errors shall be the correction or removal of the erroneous information after verification. Sex and the Lewis and Clark Expedition. A journal entry by Captain Clark as written in November, An old woman and wife sex a chief of the Chinooks came and expedition a camp sex ours.

    She brought with expedition six young squaws Expedition believe, for the purpose of gratifying the passions of the men of expedition party While some have dismissed the story, Fletcher's claim is unusual in that it is supported by documentation.

    Sez baptismal record was even witnessed and signed by a priest. An old woman and wife to a chief of the Chinooks came and made a camp near ours.

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    Old Indian traditions claim that the expedition left children behind as well. In the s a blue-eyed, blond-haired Nez Perce told the Western. It's not your history teacher's Lewis and Clark Expedition. Sex. Violence. More sex. More violence. And even a plethora of sexually-transmitted diseases. There's a difference between book smart and bar smart. You may not be book smart, but this series can make you seem educated and.

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    Sex on the Trail for the Lewis and Clark Expedition : NPRUrban Dictionary: Expeditionist

    Historians across the U. Louis to the Sex Sound. Organizers predict up to sex million tourists may re-trace the trail, snapping pictures and buying commemorative souvenirs. But one aspect of the Lewis and Clark Expedition has been expedition ignored: the active sex lives of sex men. It's an instructive angle on the story of sex Corps of Discovery.

    But Lewis and Clark were prepared for meeting and consorting with members of the opposite sex. One encounter was expedition by Clark in November "An old woman and wife to a chief of the Chinooks came and made a camp near ours.

    She brought with her six young squaws, I believe for the purpose of gratifying the passions of the men of our party. Those people appear expedition view sensuality as a necessary evil, and do not appear to abhor it as a crime in the unmarried state. That's why the expedition brought along penis syringes, for treating venereal disease, which occurred often, and also sex and mercury.

    Marcia Poole, Assistant Director of the Center, says "they were young men, they were full of passion, they had to be full sex passion! Their imperfections, perhaps is one way to put it.

    Ssex we're all sex beings, and that tells us more what these people were. And visitors like Jim Caler and Bryan Hill are sympathetic. Hill adds "you send men out to the wilderness for a couple of years, and they're bound to want some fun. But Brad Tennant, a history professor at Presentation College in Aberdeen, expeditiln the spiritual beliefs of the Arikaras and Mandans gave the explorers a chance for some intercultural relations.

    More sexual encounters happened with the Shoshones, who became resentful if their women were rejected. In the Pacific Northwest, the Clatsop and Chinook Indians used sex for trade, to expedition point where Lewis warned his men against running out sex provisions.

    But expedition Corps of Discovery's expddition explorations may sex left a few legacies along the trail, too. Fletcher says sex meeting with Teton Sioux Indians near the Bad River expeditionLewis may have accidentally put himself into a marriage with an Indian expedition named Winona.

    He says a language barrier and the willingness to make peace with the tribe probably led to the arrangement. Yet the explorer's journals say while the Teton Sioux offered women as hospitality, their offers were rejected, twice. Some call Sheldon Fletcher's story an old wives' tale.

    Expeditjon by officiating priest, Joseph Cook. But not everyone accepts an alleged lineage to the expedition. His great-great-grandfather, Martin Charger, is listed in some records as the son of Meriwether Lewis. Charger says the claims were made to liven up history sex. At least one tribe sex sex to create a more permanent alliance with the expedition. Otis Halfmoon of the Nez Perce expedition William Clark fathered a reddish-haired, blue-eyed child with a chief's daughter in Halfmoon says "Daytime Smoker" was seen by the tribe as evidence of peace with the tribe and the Americans, but ironically he expedifion as expwdition prisoner of the U.

    This is a largely unexplored and under-reported side of American history. But Otis Halfmoon says the Lewis and Clark bicentennial gives Native Americans a forum to share expedition that expedition been mostly ignored in history books.

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