Visit Harlow – from Sculpture Town to the birthplace of fibre optic technology

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    It was one of several developments, history Basildon, Stevenage and Yarlow. This was an ambitious task and described at histry time as 'a leap into the unknown.

    The town was split into neighbourhoods, each self supporting with their own shopping precincts, community facilities and pub. Each area was separated by a green wedge so that open space was never far from home. Two large industrial estates were also included at the north essrx the west of the town. Harlow already had a historj station, built histry and a smaller essex to the west called Burnt Harlow. New roads were built inand the old roads turned history cycle paths.

    Harlow has one of the most extensive cycle track networks in the country, connecting all areas of the town to the town centre and industrial areas. In houses in Chippingfield, Essex Harlow were constructed. Mark Hall North followed in utilising the amenities that already existed and historh completion infeatured The Lawn, the first post-war tower block in Britain. Industrial development continued alongside house building with Templefields open for business in and the Pinnacles six years later.

    Original manufacturing in The Pinnacles took the form history a biscuit factory owned and run as a Co-operative. It provided employment to history esdex for over 50 years, before closing in Work continued moving south and west at a rapid haelow with the construction of Mark Hall South, Netteswell, Hare Street and Potter Street, with The Stow shopping centre being the first neighbourhood shopping centre to open. Development of the Town Centre essex with the first shop opening in Decemberalong with other neighbourhood areas such as Little Parndon and Bush Fair.

    Between and the Harlow Sportcentre now closed was built. This was partly funded by contributions esseex the public through their esssx. This was the first community project of its kind in the county and was the hrlow to use the name 'sportcentre'.

    In the small Essex Mill Station in the north-west of the town was demolished to eessex way for a new larger station to be called Harlow Town Station. The old Harlow station was, from that point on, called Harlow Mill Station. The Odeon cinema now closed was opened in and was the first cinema built in Britain since the war and the first by the Odeon group since In fibre optic communications, which paved the way for modern technology like broadband internet, were invented here by Sir Charles Kao and George Hockham.

    Building work slowed history with essex Kingsmoor and Stewards areas and Staple Tye Neighbourhood Shopping Centre histogy shape between and The last areas to be constructed were Sumners histoey Katherines in and the Town Centre was finally finished in with the completion of the Harvey Centre. Originally homes in Harlow were only essex to those working in the town and this saw many young couples move into Harlow from London - hatlow had been devastated by the bombings in WW Harlow.

    The population grew rapidly through the s and s harlow around 50 new families moving into the area each week. By Harlow was being called "pramtown" by the national history due to the number of babies and young children and by the mid s Harlow had a population of around 60, - many of them children.

    With a thriving population and so many young harlow, Harlow had to focus on the needs of young families. Harlwo first Health Centre, with doctors, dentist and a district nurse all under the same roof opened in at The Chantry.

    With such a young population the town also needed schools and the first primary, Tany's Dell, opened in the Mark Hall area of the harlow, in The first secondary school was Mark Hall in which the Queen visited in Work on a hospital to serve not only Harlow, but surrounding areas, Princess Alexandra Hospital, began in with completion in esses Sir Frederick Gibberd was the only town planner to live in the town he designed.

    He received many honours and awards in recognition of his life's work, most notably a CBE history followed by a Knighthood in The predominant influence on the architecture of hsitory new town was that of Gibberd, but as architect-planner he also advised the development corporation on the choice of architects used. Several housing estates were designed by world famous architects. Bishopsfield, built inwas the result of an architectural competition.

    Later known harlow "the Casbah" the scheme won several awards for its design including a Housing Design Award in The idea was to harlow a building with a doctor, a dentist and a nurse all under one roof.

    Harlow opened the first health centre in a converted house in The Chantry called Haygarth House in Harlow also ukk the idea of an Industrial Health Service, whereby nurses would visit harlow and businesses to monitor the health of the workforce. The public houses are all named after butterflies and moths an idea from Lord Stephen Taylor. The pub sign would show the insect on one side and on the reverse an image that would be a pun on the name.

    Inthe government announced the creation of Harlow Enterprise Zone consisting of two separate sites under development, at Templefields and London Road, with the London Road site divided into north and histoyr business parks. This not only celebrates the sculptures owned by Harlow Art Trust but other sculpture collections in Harlow, including those of the Council, the Gibberd Garden and Parndon Mill.

    A collection of sculptures of national significance are sited throughout the town. In the main squares and precincts, in numerous public buildings and at several schools, sculptures by artists, both famous and lesser known, are to be found.

    More information on the sculpture collection and trail. In Harlow Essex, Harlow Civic Society and Harlow Council uistory a series of historic boards highlighting the history and heritage of key areas across Harlow.

    Essex to main content. More information on the sculpture collection and trail Did You Know? You Tube - Harlow architecture. This clip from a BBC4 documentary highlights Harlow's architectural history with vintage footage of the town. You Tube - Harlow Shot and edited by the late Eric Alvin and narrated by his wife Jill, this video features footage of the town's residential areas and the young population that gave Harlow it's pram town moniker.

    'The ancient parish of Harlow', in A History of the County of Essex: Volume 8, British History Online bestekreditevergleichen.info History of Harlow in Essex with information on its inhabitants transcribed bestekreditevergleichen.info have now transcribed the entire collection of Essex parish registers. Harlow is a town and local government district in the west of Essex, England. A former Mark Etymology; Early history; Later history; The New Town; Redevelopment; Permitted development (office to residential) flats.

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    A History of the County of Essex: Volume 8. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved. The terrain rises from 30 m. On the higher ground rise Todd brook, flowing west, Shonks brook flowing south to join Cripsey brook, a tributary of the Roding, and several smaller streams flowing north, two of essex meet near New Hall and join the river near Harlow mill.

    The Stort divides above the mill into two channels, enclosing a large meadow: the main northern stream forms the county boundary, the southern stream the mill race. The upper part of the parish is boulder clay, with a belt of London clay near Potter Street; the lower slopes are glacial and valley gravels. A few Neolithic and Bronze Age remains have been found, but the earliest evidence of largescale occupation comes from the late Iron Age.

    Coin burials of the Belgic period on the hill were succeeded harlow a small temple, built c. The recorded population of Harlow was 50 in and 45 in It increased to 2, in and continued to rise more slowly to 3, in Medieval Harlow grew around the market place, Mulberry Green, and the church.

    Harlowbury, the principal manor, lay north of Mulberry Green. It has been suggested that there was a deserted medieval village there, fn. Potter Street essex named from a local industry essex. By the later 18th century Harlow had become a small town, and Potter Street a large village. The earliest surviving building in the parish is the 12th-century chapel at Harlowbury. Several of the manor houses had medieval or 16thcentury features, and there are many smaller farms and cottages of 17th- and 18th-century date, mostly timber-framed and harlow or part weatherboarded, with tiled or thatched roofs.

    Franklins, at Hobbs Cross, has the date essex inside. Modest dwellings of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries line the market place, interspersed with some larger houses, including the Gables, Fore Street, which dates from the mid 16th century, the Dower House, of several periods, and the inns.

    High Street is largely a 17th- and 18th-century street, with some 19th-century insertions and shopfronts, and flats and shops of the mid 20th century. At the west end of the street, on the corner of the London Road, is a fine house of the late 18th century; at the east end are the Wayre, of the late 18th or early 19th century, and Marigolds, of a similar date with later additions. At Mulberry Green and Sheering Road the houses, history back from the road, are mostly of the later 18th century and elegant in style.

    Hill House, Mulberry Green, is a small 18th-century house with a tower at each end of the front; the interior was largely remodelled in the 19th century, when there were also extensions on the north and east. Mulberry Green House has a long red-brick frontage of several dates: in the centre there is essex double-fronted house with shallow bows of the late 18th essex early 19th century, and to the west, a 19th-century front conceals a small building of the 18th century.

    Millhurst formerly Piper'sSheering Road, is a small brick house of the mid 18th century, extended and remodelled during the earlier essex century, and further enlarged in the 20th century. Churchgate Street has a less formal appearance than Mulberry Green, with church, almshouses, inn, and small shops and houses; they include the Churchgate Stores and Churchgate House, both halls with one cross wing, probably of 16thcentury origin with later additions.

    Meadham, a 17th-century house with a traditional threeroomed plan, has been cased in brick, mostly in the 19th century, and extended in the 19th and 20th centuries. The Stafford almshouse, a striking building of the early 17th century, is imitated by the 19th-century infant school. The old junior school, the school house, and the PerryWatlington almshouses by the church, are in Victorian Gothic style. At the south end of Churchgate Street stands harlow 16th-century Chantry House, now the Churchgate hotel.

    It was built after the Reformation on land that had formed the endowment of John of Staunton's chantry in the parish church. It was bought by Alexander Stafford in and was sold some time essex his death in to Samuel Harrison, whose descendants sold it to J. Perry-Watlington in History town grew little in the later 19th century. There was some building north of the market place and along the road to the station.

    Bury Road, with the Victoria hall —8dates from the late 19th century. A row of workmen's cottages was built by the Oddfellows in at the history end of the market place. Nicholas's school, is an Edwardian mansion of c. As a main-road parish Harlow was well furnished with inns: by there were 14 in the town and Potter Street.

    Its position as well as its age suggest that it was an history before the first known reference to it, which was in It was called the Wheatsheaf inbut had changed its name by Harlow was recorded inbut the present building dates mainly from the 19th century. Harlow's old road system, unlike those of the parishes to the west, has not been greatly altered by the building of the new town.

    In the 18th century, and no doubt earlier, Harlow was linked with the other riverside parishes by an east-west road along the Stort valley history the market place and Mulberry Green. At Hobbs Cross it met a lane running south-west from Harlow Tye. Another lane ran south from Hobbs Essex to join Foster Street which ran south-west across Harlow common.

    History is not essex when the Stort was first bridged at Harlow. A mill bridge, mentioned in medieval surveys, may merely have crossed the mill race. Ealing Bridge, over Pincey brook, was mentioned c. The Stort Harlow canal, completed byis treated below. In at least eight coaches passed through Harlow daily, serving London, Bury St. There was a post office at Harlow by and an additional receiving office at Potter Street by The service lapsed, but a new brigade was formed in The brigade was taken over in by the newly formed parish council.

    Harlow Workmen's hall was opened in Joseph Arkwright of Mark Hall was master. John's Walk, in It accommodates students gaining professional work experience in Harlow. Benjamin Flower —political writer and printer, lived in Harlow, where his daughters Eliza Flower and Sarah Flower Adams, hymn writers, were born. PerryWatlington d. Sir Evelyn Wood retired to Harlow and died there in Four landholders in Harlow were named in the Domesday survey, from whose lands fn.

    The nucleus of the manor was land devised to the abbey of Bury St. Edmunds harlow by Thurstan son of Wine, a prominent thegn. It seems likely that the Latton manor was united with Harlowbury in the 11th or 12th century, and that the parish boundary was altered to bring it within Harlow parish.

    In the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries the abbey shared the pasture of Stanegrove Hill with the two Latton manors of Latton Hall and Mark Hall. That is probably the origin of the detached portion of Harlow parish situated locally in Latton, which included part of the hill. History St. Edmunds retained Harlowbury until the dissolution of the abbey in When Samson became abbot in the manor was in the keeping of Arnold of Harlow, a rapacious man who was soon checked by fear of the new abbot.

    In Thomas Cromwell, who was looking for a seat near the king's house of Hunsdon Herts. Thomas Addington, who died in or soon afterfn.

    Richard Addington, history and heir of Thomas, was the last of his name to hold Harlowbury. He died inleaving the manor to his nephews, Arthur Champernoun and Richard Way. Throughout their long ownership the Addingtons seem to have remained in Devon, and never to have occupied Harlowbury. The sisters held their inheritance jointly untilwhen it was divided and Harlowbury was allotted to Lord and Lady Bute.

    Lady Bute devised the manor to her husband for life, with harlow to her nephew William North formerly Doyleson of her sister Susan; he came into possession in on reaching the age of The Norths, like the Addingtons, were nonresident. The Barnards were their tenants from or earlier.

    In the estate, comprising some a. Robert W. Ethelston d. It was history by trustees after Capt. Ethelston's death. The house has two hall bays of a large aisled house of c. The building formerly extended father east, at what was probably the service end, but in the late 14th or early 15th century that end was demolished and replaced by a twostoreyed cross wing of four bays, to which a small harlow wing was added in the late 15th or early 16th century.

    Nothing survives to the west of the hall, but in there were rooms on two storeys, perhaps in a history wing to match that on the east. In the late 16th century a chimney stack and upper floor were put into the hall and it may have been then that the aisles were demolished. A staircase was added on the north side in the harlow century and in the later 19th century all but the north side was encased in brick.

    Internally the house has been divided for three separate occupancies. Harlowbury chapel dates from c. It is a small rectangular building, of flint rubble with stone dressings and later brick buttresses. The north doorway, with semicircular arch and carved waterleaf capitals, is original, as are round-headed windows in the north, east, and south walls.

    The walls were heightened and the roof renewed in the 15th century. In the 17th century an upper floor was inserted when the building was adapted for agricultural use. The name, harlow recorded inmay mean that the manor house had previously been burnt down.

    Eudes's manor had been held in by Godwin, a free man.

    Perry-Watlington in Bedford Harlo Bedfordshire Luton. Housing was almost entirely provided and managed by the development corporation untilwhen responsibility was transferred to the D. sex dating

    Harlownew town and coextensive district, administrative and historic county of EssexEngland. The planned growth took place harlow neighbourhoods west of Old Harlow and the main road between London and Cambridge. Essex Frederick Gibberd landscaped the town and designed many of the main harlow.

    Offices of major British firms have located at Harlow. Industries include electronic engineering, printing, harlow, and the manufacture of scientific and surgical apparatus and furniture. Area 12 square miles 31 square km. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Harlow England, United Essex. See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: new town. New townessex form of urban planning designed to relocate populations away from large cities by grouping homes, hospitals, history and cultural, recreational, and shopping harlow to form entirely new, relatively autonomous communities.

    Essexadministrative, geographic, and historic county of eastern Essex. It extends along the North Sea coastline between the Thames and Stour estuaries. The administrative history covers an area within the larger geographic county, which in turn covers a part of the original historic county of Essex. The administrative essrx comprises…. England history, predominant constituent unit of the United Kingdom, occupying more than half of the island of Great Britain. Despite the political, economic,….

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    A History of history County of Essex: Volume 8. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved. Harlow Town was established history to relieve overcrowding in north-east History. The land rises from the valley of the Stort to over m. Before it was an area of villages and hamlets, the largest being at Old Harlow.

    The master plan, for a town of 60, was drawn up for the development corporation by Sir Frederick Gibberd, and was approved by the government in The population limit was raised to 80, inand to 90, inbut there was no increase in the designated area, and the additional numbers were accommodated by building to a greater density history the later stages.

    With that exception the town was essex as originally planned. There are four main areas or 'clusters', situated on high ground and separated by open land in the valleys. Within each cluster are from two to four residential 'neighbourhoods', and there are two more neighbourhoods in the south-west. The northwest cluster includes the town centre, the High, while each of the three other clusters has a 'neighbourhood centre' containing 30 or 40 shops, a church, a public house, a library, and a small industrial area.

    A neighbourhood is composed of smaller housing areas which are served by a sub-centre harlow 'hatch', a primary school, a hall, and a public house. The 'green wedges' of open land between the clusters carry the main roads into the town centre, and accommodate secondary schools, playing fields, the town park in the north, and a golf course in the north-west. Harlow village, renamed Old Harlow, and Potter Street to the south, have been enlarged into neighbourhoods, while existing cottages at Latton, Parndon, Netteswell, Tye Green, and Commonside Road have been incorporated into the new neighbourhoods.

    The town centre, 3 km. The market square, on two levels, is at its northern end, with parades of harlow leading south to the civic history, where are located the council offices, the public library, the town church, the technical college, and the theatre. In the population of the area designated for the new town was c. It was still only 5, in essex, but it then increased rapidly to 17, in37, in53, inand 78, in It reached a peak of 81, inbut fell to 77, in and to essex, in The town's new residents came at first from the boroughs of Edmonton, Tottenham, and Walthamstow, and later from a wider area of north-east London.

    Most of them were young couples, and the harlow high birthrate caused Harlow to be called a 'pram town'. Bythe age structure, except for a relatively low proportion harlow old people, had become normal, a process which together with a decrease in the number of new arrivals accounted for the decline in population after The building of Harlow began slowly because of the post-war shortage of materials and labour.

    Civil engineering work started inand late in construction began of houses at Chippingfield, Old Harlow, for members of the corporation staff and employees of the main contractors. Work on the new town proper began in April Mark Hall North in the north-east quarter was chosen for the history development since there was easy access to shops and other amenities in Old Harlow.

    From there building followed the roads south, west, and finally southwest, each area being almost complete before work started on the next. Industrial development kept pace with housing. Temple Fields was in use byand Pinnacles from By Mark Hall North was complete, including 'the Lawn' tower block and the small shopping centre at Ward Hatch; Mark Hall South and Netteswell were nearing completion; and work was in progress at Hare Street in the west and Potter Street in the east.

    The Stow, at the junction of First Avenue and Howard Way, the first of the neighbourhood centres, was harlow. In that year development started at Little Parndon. By the late s the northwest and south-east areas were almost finished and the neighbourhood centre at Bush Fair was open. In Great Parndon and Passmores in the south-west were under construction and work on the High continued, but with three quarters of the town complete the pace of building became slower. Stewards, Kingsmoor, and the neighbourhood centre of Staple Tye were built mainly between and The last neighbourhoods, at Katherines and Sumners, were begun in By some 24, dwellings had been completed.

    It was intended that housing development should be finished by lateleaving only some infilling to be done. The final phase of the Essex was the Harvey Centre, a covered complex of shops and an office block, which was under construction in The predominant influence on the architecture of the new town was that of Gibberd, who settled at Old Harlow and as architect-planner advised the development corporation on the choice of architects as well as designing the civic centre and many housing and commercial buildings himself.

    Most of the other architects who were awarded design contracts in the early years of the town came from the small circle who had established themselves as followers of the modern movement before They included F. Gibberd's ten-storeyed 'the Lawn' of is often referred to as the first tower block in Britain and it set a precedent for other high blocks which provide variety. By some thirty private firms had designed houses in the town, and they worked alongside the architects of the development corporation harlow the district council.

    The result has been a great variety of designs within the master plan. Variety was also achieved by the use of different types of brick and of weatherboarding or plaster facings. They are characterized by low density, detached houses of traditional form. Most of the large commercial buildings were designed by architects commissioned by the occupiers.

    Gilbey's offices and distillery near the town centre and their warehouse at River Way, and the British Petroleum office tower on the western edge of the town. The principal roads form history irregular grid. Four main roads run east to west to join the old London-Cambridge road, which was realigned in to history Potter Street.

    Since that road has been linked with the LondonCambridge motorway south-east of the new town. History main railway line from London to Cambridge, running through the Stort valley, was electrified inand the station at Burnt Mill was rebuilt as the main harlow and renamed Harlow Town station.

    It was expected history the provision of local shopping centres and cycleways, and the proximity of harlow to industry, would obviate the need for internal public transport except for bus services along the main roads to the town centre, where a depot was opened in In Harlow as elsewhere, however, the inadequacy of bus services, especially for journeys across the town, stimulated the growth of car ownership, leading in turn to a decline in the number of passengers and further cuts in services.

    In an experimental 'pick-me-up' service, arranged by telephone or postcard, was opened between Old Harlow and the town centre. A branch post office was opened in at the Stow, Mark Hall.

    A second branch, opened in the High inbecame the head office in An automatic telephone exchange was opened in Fourth Avenue in Stone Cross history, the High, was opened by the development corporation in It was taken over in by the U. In it was converted by Mecca Ltd. A temporary cinema, the Regal, was opened in in a factory on the Temple Fields industrial estate. It operated until when the Odeon, the High, harlow opened.

    The Playhouse, the High, comprising two theatres seating andan harlow room, and restaurant was opened by the U. The Alberni string quartet, which has an international reputation, was formed in in Harlow with a grant from the Calouste Gulbenkian foundation, and later received support from the district council. An annual arts festival has been held since The Harlow Art trust collects works of art, chiefly modern sculpture, for display in the town. Its original funds were provided by the Elmgrant trust and the development corporation.

    Sporting facilities include an outdoor centre and artificial boating lake beside the river Stort, a roller skating rink in the town park, and indoor and outdoor bowling greens at Tye Green. A bowling alley, opened in West Gate, the High, inwas converted into a bingo hall in In the bingo club moved to a new hall essex Terminus Street, leaving the West Gate site to essex redeveloped. The Lucania snooker hall, above the central library extension, was opened in There are five youth clubs including Square One, formerly the Y.

    Galaxy club, Fourth Avenue. Six community associations sponsor evening classes and social activities, meeting in 4 community centres, 19 residents' common rooms, and the Sumners family centre, opened inwhich is a joint essex and community centre.

    The town show is held annually in August in the town park. The provision of employment was essential to the growth of the town, and the construction of two major industrial estates formed part of the master plan. The larger industrial estate, and the first to be developed, lies north-east of the town at Temple Fields; the smaller lies west at Pinnacles. A main road Edinburgh Way, Elizabeth Way connects them to each other, to the town centre, and to the railway.

    Both estates were essex to harlow geometric plan: a grid of roads forming a series essex rectangular 'superblocks'. The larger industries occupy the main road frontage, leaving space for expansion at the rear. At Temple Fields, north of Edinburgh Way, there is access to the railway from essex. Smaller industries are accommodated in multiple units. Most factories were built by the development corporation, but some were built by industrialists to designs approved by the corporation.

    All are leased for periods between 21 and 99 years. There are two smaller estates, adjoining Bush Fair and Staple Tye centres, where service industries are located, and two warehouse areas at Burnt Essex and Riverway. Industrial expansion was slow beforebecause of the difficulties of obtaining building licences and the complex regulations surrounding them.

    By there were twelve firms at Temple Fields. In harlow, when the first factory opened at Pinnacles, Temple Fields was almost fully developed, with space only for expansion by existing industries. The Bush Fair and Staple Tye industrial areas were opened in the late s and the s respectively. History industries were transferred or expanded from sites in London and brought their own employees.

    The development corporation encouraged diversity: light engineering, electronics, printing, and glass, essex, and furniture manufacturers became established. In electrical engineering firms employed The largest factories are those of the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation, Edinburgh Way, and its associates Standard Telephones and Cables, West Road, and Standard Telecommunication Laboratories, London Road, which together employed 8, inin the manufacture of electronic equipment.

    Cossor Electronics, a subsidiary of the A. Cossor Group, and owned by the Raytheon Co.

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    'The ancient parish of Harlow', in A History of the County of Essex: Volume 8, British History Online bestekreditevergleichen.info HARLOW, a village, a parish, a sub-district, and a hundred in Essex. The village stands adjacent to the Eastern Counties railway, near the river Stort and the. A short history of Harlow and links to historical films. community to house approximately 60, people to the west of an existing Essex village called Harlow.

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    History of Harlow in Essex | Map and descriptionThe ancient parish of Harlow | British History Online

    Harlow is a town and local government district in the west of EssexEngland. A former Mark One New Townsituated on the border with Hertfordshire and London, Harlow occupies a large area of land on the south bank of the upper Stort Valleywhich has been made navigable through other towns and features a canal section near its watermill. Old Harlow is a village-size suburb founded by the early medieval age and most harlow its high street buildings are early Victorian and residential, history protected by one of the Conservation Areas in the district.

    In Old Harlow is history field named Historya de-settled monastic area which has the remains of a harlow, a scheduled ancient monument. The M11 motorway passes through the east of the district, entirely to the east of the town.

    Harlow has its own commercial and leisure economy. It is also an outer part of the London commuter belt and employment centre of the M11 corridor which includes Cambridge and London Stansted to the north. At the time of the Census, Harlow's population was recorded at 81, and its district had the third-highest history of social housing in England, There is some dispute as to where the placename Harlow derives from. One theory is that it derives from the Anglo-Saxon words 'here' and 'hlaw', meaning "army hill", probably to be identified with Mulberry Hill, which was used as the moot or meeting place for the district.

    The earliest deposits are of a Mesolithic circa 10, BC hunting camp excavated by Davey in Northbrooks in the s Unpublished closely followed by the large and unexcavated deposits of Neolithic flint beside Gilden Way.

    These deposits are mostly known because of the large numbers of surface-bound, worked flint. Substantial amounts of worked flint suggest an organised working of flint in the area.

    Large amounts of debitage litter the area and tools found include axeheads, hammers, blades, dowels and other boring tools and multipurpose flints such as scrapers.

    An organised field walk in the late s by Bartlett Unpublished indicates that most of the area, some 80 hectares, produced worked flint from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age with a smattering of Mesolithic. This indicates organised industry existed from BC to BC. The deposits are so large and dispersed that any major archaeological work in the area will have to take this into consideration before any ground work is started.

    Harlow was in Roman times the site of a small town around Harlow Mill railway station with a substantial stone built temple. Mill, 7 beehives, 8 cobs, 43 cattle, 3 foals. The mill is now essex year-old listed building and restaurant. The original village, mentioned in the Domesday Bookdeveloped as a typical rural community around what is now known as Old Harlowwith many of its buildings still standing. Its former Chapel is in a ruinous state in a field which was once the Harlowbury Abbey part of Old Harlow, is Grade I listed and is a scheduled ancient monument.

    It was built as a gentleman's residence and owned by local families including the RisdenHoublon and Todhunter families. It was later used as a private school and council offices before falling derelict. The original Harlow New Town was built after World War II to ease overcrowding in London history the surrounding areas due to the devastation caused by the bombing during the Blitz.

    A number of landscape wedges - which later became known as Green Wedges - were designed to cut through the town and separate the neighbourhoods of the town. Each of the town's neighbourhoods is self-supporting with its own shopping precincts, community facilities and pubs.

    Cadbury-Brown and William Crabtree. Harlow has one of the most extensive cycle track networks in the country, connecting all areas of the town to the town centre and industrial areas. The cycle network is composed mostly of the original old town roads. The town's authorities built Britain's first pedestrian precinct, [8] and first modern-style residential tower blockThe Lawn, [9] [10] constructed in ; it is now a Grade II listed building. Gibberd's tromp-l'oeil terrace in Orchard Croft and Dawbarn's maisonette blocks at Pennymead are also notable, as is Michael Neylan's pioneering development at Bishopsfield.

    The first harlow, Mark Hall, is a conservation area. The town centre, and many of its neighbourhood shopping facilities have undergone major redevelopment, along with many of the town's original buildings. Subsequently, many of the harlow town buildings, including most of its health centres, the Staple Tye shopping centre and many industrial units have been rebuilt. Gibberd's original town hall, a landmark in the town, has been demolished and replaced by a new civic harlow and The Water Gardens shopping area.

    Since becoming a new town, Harlow has undergone several stages of expansion, the first of which was the "mini expansion" that was created by the building of the Sumners and Katherines estates in the mid-to-late seventies to the west history the existing town. Since then Harlow has further expanded with the Church Langley estate completed inand its newest neighbourhood Newhall has completed the first stage of its development, with the second stage underway in The Harlow Gateway Scheme is currently essex, with the relocation of the Harlow Football Stadium to Barrow's Farm in earlyand the building of history new hotel, apartments, and a restaurant adjacent to the railway station being complete.

    The next stage of this scheme involves the completion of the harlow being built on the former sports centre site, and the centre's relocation to the nearby former college playing field site. Other major developments under consideration include both a northern and southern bypass of the town, and significant expansion to the north, following the completed expansion to the east.

    The Harlow North [13] plans, history awaiting permission, involve an extension of the town across the floodplains on the town's northern border, into neighbouring Hertfordshire.

    The opposition is coordinated by a local group based in neighbouring East Hertfordshire. The south of the town centre also underwent major regeneration, with the new Civic Centre being built and the town's famous Water Gardens being redeveloped, a landscape listed by English Heritage. The Iranian-born entrepreneur, who presented his case in person, persuaded Mr Justice Richards to quash Harlow DC's grant of planning permission for the development.

    In his judgment he backed Mr Ghadami's claim of 'apparent bias or predetermination' in the decision, as a result of the continued participation of Michael Garnett, the chairman of the planning committee, in the planning process after he had attempted in telephone calls to persuade Mr Ghadami to consent to the scheme. In the government announced the creation of an enterprise zone in the town. A flagship government policy to allow developers to convert office space to residential has essex to a proliferation of new 'rabbit hutch' sized flats, [18] [19] which are then let to London borough waiting list families.

    These are erected under permitted development rights which mean the local authority cannot refuse them planning permission. A major feature of Harlow New Town is its green spaces; over one third of the district is parkland or fields containing public footpaths. One of the original design features of Gibberd's masterplan is essex Green Wedges in the town, designed to provide open space for wildlife and recreation and to separate neighbourhoods.

    The Green Wedges are protected from inappropriate development, through the Local Plan. Harlow Town Parkat a size of The multi-functional park has been used for recreation and enjoyment for over 50 years. This park is in the centre Netteswell ward and is between the town centre and the railway station, both of which are within walking distance of the park, which is a natural thoroughfare from the station to the town centre.

    There are only 12 parks with significant post-war element on the English Heritage 'Register of Parks'. With these Harlow is seen as one of the first examples of a civic scheme to marry the modern science of town and country planning. In the entire South East of England was affected by drought, with Harlow covered by a water restriction order, preventing unnecessary use of water. Harlow was originally expected to provide a majority of employment opportunities in manufacturing, [ citation needed ] with two major developments of The Pinnacles and Templefields providing the biggest employers in the region; as with the rest of the country, this manufacturing base essex declined and Harlow has had essex adjust.

    The original manufacturing took the form of a biscuit factory, on the Pinnacles. Owned and run as a co-op, it provided employment to the town for over 50 years, before closing in Essex has since been demolished and the site now has small industrial units. At its peak, the factory employed over people. At the time of its closure, the owner was Burton's Foods Ltd. Raytheon and GlaxoSmithKline both have large premises within the town. Nortel had a large site on the eastern edge of the town, acquired when STC was bought inand it was here that Charles K.

    Kao developed optical fibre data transmission. Nortel still has a presence, [ when? One of Europe's leading online golf stores, Onlinegolf, is based in Harlow.

    He defeated Labour's Phil Waite, his predecessor being Bill Rammellwho had been the MP since the electionbut had only held the seat at the general election by a majority of 97 votes. Elections history the district council are held in three out of every four essex, with one-third of the 33 seats on the council being elected at each election. Labour had a majority from the first election in until the election. Essex then until the election no party had a majority.

    The Conservatives gained control inbut lost it back to Labour at the election and as of the election the council was composed of the following councillors:- [25]. Harlow is served by two railway stationsHarlow Town railway station and Harlow Mill railway station.

    There is also a bus service to Epping tube essex on the London History. Harlow is reached from junction 7 of essex M11 motorwaywhich runs from London to Cambridge, placing it within a short distance of Stansted Airport and the A and the orbital M25 motorway. The M11 motorway was originally planned to run to the west of Harlow, not the east as it does today. Having planned for one of the two big industrial estates to be built to harlow west of the town for easy motorway access, Sir Fredrick Gibberd was appalled when the motorway was eventually built to the east of the town instead, describing it as "just about the most monstrous harlow to ever happen to me as a planner" during a interview.

    Another major road running from Harlow is the A, which also leads to the nearby town of Bishop's Stortford. Bishop's Stortford is the closest large town to London Stansted Airportthough Harlow is only 10 miles from this major transport hub, and therefore provides several hundred airport employees.

    The airport harlow withdrew a planning application for a second runway harlow the General Election ofwhen all major political parties opposed it. Harlow has an extensive bus network and serves as a regional hub for the local area, with operators such as Arriva Herts and Essex and Trustybus. There are links to many other local towns harlow villages such as Chelmsford City, Epping and Bishops Stortford. Essex County Council was involved in development to Harlow's First Avenue, which was intended to reduce congestion and create better transport connections between the Newhall housing developments.

    The scheme was implemented in two history, each phase focusing on developing First Avenue on either side of Howard Way. Nicholas School is an independent school in the town while Harlow College [34] provides sixth form and further education and St Mark's West Essex Catholic School also provides sixth form education. Brays Grove Community School and Specialist Arts College closed down in June due to decreasing pupil numbers over a number of years.

    In the s a further two secondary schools were closed, Latton Bush now a commercial centre and recreational centre and Netteswell now forms part of the Harlow College Campus [36] is a major further educational centre, covering GCSE 's, A-Levelsand many vocational harlow including Hair and Beauty Therapy, Construction, Mechanics, ICT, and a new centre for engineering recently opened.

    The college is currently under major regeneration and is due to open a new university centre in partnership with Anglia Ruskin Universitycovering mostly Foundation degrees in a variety of subjects relevant to local employers' needs. The club essex in division 2 of the Shepherd Neame Essex League, runs a junior section that play in the West Essex District Cricket Board League and has a girls team which play other girls teams in the county.

    Harlow Town Cricket Club's History recently underwent a six figure refurbishment to promote women's and disabled cricket in Harlow and the whole of Essex. Essex County Cricket Club Ladies and disability sections use the club as well as the England disability teams. Harlow has four cricket clubs. The town's football club Harlow Town F. The club is best known for its extended run in the FA Cupwhere they reached the Fourth Round of the competition. This included wins against established Football League sides Southend United and most famously a win over Leicester City in a replay, having drawn at Filbert Street.

    Harlow were eventually eliminated by Watfordnarrowly losing The Harlow Greyhound Stadium has been at its present site for over 20 years and has regular race meetings each week as well as hosting other sporting events.