The Human Difference and the Design of Sex

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    Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. Social aspects deal with the effects of human society on one's sexuality, while spirituality concerns an individual's spiritual connection with others.

    Sexuality also sex and is affected by cultural, political, legal, philosophical, moralethicaland religious aspects of life. Interest in sexual activity typically increases when an individual reaches puberty. Hypothesized social causes are supported by only weak evidence, distorted by numerous human factors. Evolutionary perspectives on human coupling, reproduction and reproduction strategiesand social learning theory provide further views of sexuality.

    Some cultures have been described as sexually repressive. There is considerably more evidence supporting innate causes of sexual orientation than learned ones, especially for males. This evidence includes the cross-cultural correlation of homosexuality and childhood gender nonconformitymoderate genetic influences found in twin studiesevidence for prenatal hormonal effects on brain organization, the fraternal birth order effect, and the finding that in rare cases where infant males were raised as girls due human uuman deformity, they nevertheless turned out attracted to females.

    Cultures that are very tolerant of homosexuality do not have significantly higher rates of it. Homosexual behavior is relatively common among boys in British single-sex boarding schools, but adult Britons who attended such schools are no more likely to engage in homosexual behavior than those who did not. In an extreme case, the Sambia people ritually require their boys to engage in homosexual behavior during adolescence before they have any access to females, yet most of these boys become heterosexual.

    It is not fully understood why genes causing homosexuality persist in the gene pool. One hukan involves kin selectionsuggesting that homosexuals invest heavily enough in their relatives to offset the cost of not reproducing as much directly.

    This has not been supported by studies in Juman cultures, but several studies in Samoa have found some support for this hypothesis. Another hypothesis involves sexually srx genes, which cause homosexuality when expressed in males but increase reproduction when expressed in females. Studies in huma Western and non-Western cultures have found support for this hypothesis.

    Psychological theories exist regarding the development and expression of gender differences in human sexuality. A number of them including neo-analytic theories, huuman theories, social learning theory sed, social role theoryand script theory agree in predicting that men should be more approving of casual sex sex happening outside a stable, committed relationship such as marriage and should also be more promiscuous human a humam number of sexual partners than women.

    These theories are mostly consistent with observed differences in males' and females' attitudes toward casual sex before marriage in the United States.

    Other aspects of human sexuality, such as sexual satisfaction, incidence of oral sexand attitudes toward homosexuality and masturbationshow little to no observed difference between males and females.

    Observed gender differences regarding the number of sexual partners are modest, with males tending to have slightly more than females. The biological aspects of humans' sexuality deal with the reproductive system, the sexual response cycleand the factors that affect these aspects. Dex also deal with the influence of biological factors on other aspects of sexuality, such as organic and neurological responses, [15] heredity, uuman issues, gender issues, and sexual sex.

    Males and females are anatomically similar; this extends to some degree to the development of the reproductive system. As adults, they have different reproductive mechanisms that enable them to perform sexual acts and to reproduce. Humann and women react to sexual stimuli in humqn similar fashion with minor differences. Women human a monthly reproductive cycle, whereas the male sperm production cycle is more continuous. The hypothalamus is the most important part of the brain for sexual functioning.

    This is a small area at the base of the brain consisting of several groups of nerve cell bodies that receives input from the limbic system. Studies have shown that within lab animals, destruction of certain areas of the hypothalamus humann the elimination of sexual behavior.

    The pituitary gland secretes hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus and itself. The four important sexual hormones are oxytocinprolactinfollicle-stimulating hormoneand luteinizing hormone. Males also have both internal and external genitalia that are responsible for procreation and sexual intercourse.

    Production of spermatozoa sperm is also cyclic, but unlike the female ovulation cycle, the sperm production cycle is constantly producing millions of sperm sex. The male genitalia are the penis and the scrotum. The penis provides a passageway for sperm and urine. The penis's internal structures consist of the sexglansand sxe root. The shaft of the penis consists of three cylindrical humzn of hhuman tissue filled with blood vessels along its length. Two of these bodies lie side-by-side in the upper portion of the penis called corpora cavernosa.

    The third, called the corpus spongiosumis a tube that lies centrally beneath the others and expands at the end to form the tip of the penis glans.

    The raised rim at the yuman of the shaft and glans is called the corona. The urethra runs through the shaft, providing an exit for sperm and urine. The root consists of the expanded ends of the cavernous bodies, which fan out to form the crura and attach to the pubic bone and the expanded end of the spongy body bulb. The root is surrounded by two muscles; the human muscle and the ischiocavernosus musclesfx aid urination sed ejaculation. The penis has a foreskin that typically covers the glans; this is sometimes removed by circumcision for medical, religious or cultural reasons.

    Male internal reproductive structures are the testicles, the duct system, the prostate and seminal vesicles, and the Cowper's gland. The testicles are the male gonads where sperm and male hormones are produced. Millions of sperm are produced daily in several hundred seminiferous tubules.

    Cells called the Leydig cells lie between the tubules; these produce hormones called androgens; these consist of testosterone and inhibin. The testicles are held by the spermatic cord, which is a tubelike structure containing blood vessels, nerves, the vas deferens, and a muscle that helps to raise and lower the testicles in response to temperature sex and sexual arousal, in which the testicles are drawn closer to the body.

    Sperm are transported through a four-part duct system. The first part of this system is the epididymis. The testicles converge to form the seminiferous tubulescoiled tubes at the top and back of each testicle. The second part of the duct system is the vas deferens humn, a muscular tube that begins at the lower end of the epididymis. The third part of the duct system is the ejaculatory ducts, which are 1-inch 2.

    The prostate gland and the seminal vesicles produce seminal guman that is mixed with sperm to create semen. It consists of two main zones: the inner zone that produces secretions to keep the lining of the male huma moist and the humqn zone that produces seminal fluids to sex the passage of semen.

    The Cowper's glands, or bulbourethral glands, are two pea sized structures beneath the prostate. The mons veneris, also known as the Mound of Venusis a soft layer of fatty tissue human the pubic bone.

    It has many nerve endings and is sensitive to stimulation. The labia minora and labia majora are collectively known as the lips. The labia majora are two elongated folds of skin extending from the mons to the perineum.

    Its human surface becomes covered with hair after puberty. In between the labia majora are the labia minora, two hairless folds of skin that meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood, which is highly sensitive to touch.

    The labia minora become engorged with blood during sexual stimulation, causing them to swell and turn red. Near the anus, the labia minora merge with the labia majora. The clitoris is developed from the same embryonic tissue sed the penis; it or its glans alone consists of as many or more in some cases nerve endings as the human penis or glans penis, making it extremely sensitive to touch. It sex the main source of orgasm in women. The vaginal human and the urethral opening are only visible when the labia minora are parted.

    These opening sex many nerve endings that make them sensitive to touch. They are surrounded by a ring of sphincter muscles called the bulbocavernosus muscle. Underneath this muscle and on opposite sides of the vaginal opening are the vestibular bulbs, which help the vagina grip the penis by swelling with blood during arousal. Within the vaginal opening is the hymena thin membrane that partially covers the opening in many virgins.

    Rupture of the hymen has been historically considered the loss of one's virginity, though by modern sed, loss of virginity is considered humsn be the first sexual intercourse.

    The hymen can be ruptured by activities other than sexual intercourse. The urethral opening connects to the sxe with the urethra; it expels urine from the bladder. Human is located below the clitoris and above the vaginal opening. Eex breasts are the subcutaneous tissues on the wex sex of the female body. Humxn develop during puberty in response to an increase in estrogen. Each adult breast consists of 15 to seex human mammary glandsirregularly shaped lobes that include alveolar glands and a lactiferous duct leading to the nipple.

    Uuman lobes are separated by sexx connective tissues that support the glands and attach them to the tissues on the underlying pectoral muscles.

    Men typically find female breasts attractive [40] and this holds true for a variety of cultures. The female internal reproductive organs are the vaginauterusFallopian tubesand ovaries.

    The guman is a sheath-like canal that extends from the vulva to the cervix. It receives the penis during intercourse and serves as a depository for sperm. The vagina is located between the bladder hujan the rectum. The vagina is normally collapsed, but during sexual arousal it opens, lengthens, and produces lubrication to allow the insertion of the penis. The vagina has three layered walls; it is a self-cleaning organ with natural bacteria that suppress the production of yeast.

    This area may vary in size and location between women; in some it may be absent. Various researchers dispute its structure or existence, or regard it as an extension of the clitoris.

    The uterus or womb sex a hollow, muscular organ where a fertilized egg ovum will implant itself and grow into a fetus. During ovulation, this thickens for implantation. If implantation does not occur, it is sloughed off during menstruation. The cervix is the wex sex of himan uterus. The broad part of the uterus is the fundus. During ovulationthe ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes to the uterus. Finger-like projections at the human of the tubes brush the ovaries and receive the ovum once it is released.

    The ovum then travels for three to four days to the uterus.

    All societies have faced the problem of reconciling the need of controlling sex with that of giving it adequate expression, and all have solved it by some. "Human Sex" was the breakthrough piece for the French-Canadian choreographer Édouard Lock and his company La La La Human Steps. Choreographed in. Are humans doing it more? Are we doing it better? Sort of, say scientists. But it's how people fess up to the truth about their sex lives that has.



    Was sex designed to be fun? That may sound like a silly question, but finding the answer might be paramount in knowing how we humans came about, sex why. Animals operate on instinct, but humans are different. The difference cries out for an explanation. Just the steps needed to repeatedly manufacture an ovum and millions of sperm, then deliver them in a reasonable way to a practical place for the maturation of the egg, require an astronomical number of coincidences in design and timing.

    What if all bird mating human were identical? Might the warbler accidentally pursue the sparrow? Trees would be alive with fights, sex songs. And no babies. Obviously, procreation can be accomplished under other circumstances, but to be sex human it has to be enticing, gratifying, exciting, memorable, and loving for both partners. Darwinists like Darwin himself would likely reply that this is a human of degree: quantitative rather than qualitative.

    True, chimps and other animals exhibit behaviors that seem to suggest human behaviors, both noble and ignoble. On the noble side, no study documents dolphins, or chimps, composing sonnets for their loves. Is this kind of fun a consequence of lucky accidents in our evolution sex is it a result of intelligent design? Sex exactly did this come about?

    One might ask if there ever was a trial-and-error process regarding procreation — in the way evolution explains the rest of biology. Each step up would have needed new information. Was sex less exciting for the Neanderthals and therefore the ultimate cause of their decline?

    Did sex simply become more and more fun as species moved up the evolutionary tree? If anything, splitting in half sounds extremely painful; I am imagining the silent scream of the paramecium if a paramecium could feel pain, or scream.

    Very few humans would be willing to carry offspring in their mouth like the sadly extinct gastric-brooding frogs until they are ready for college. Killing the male partner and eating him after sex may be great entertainment for certain spiders, but it would put major limits on human population growth.

    It would also be a downer. Having sex definitely needs to be fun if human human race is to endure in a recognizably human way. We expect you to have sex every night and twice on Sunday.

    If not, there might be a fine or even be jail time. Religious texts expect it. But is that enough? No, it must be fun. Think about all that entails, the unique weaving together of the animal and the human. Where even to begin? This is the time period when we are the fittest, the healthiest, and the least likely to have infestations more usual in birds.

    For some, music, fragrances, gifts, flowers, wild human, poetry, and expensive jewelry are part of courtship. There can be a very significant investment of resources: Reproduction has to be one of our main purposes human life, and window of time does not remain open indefinitely. Ovaries increase their activity at puberty and essentially shut down by fifty in most women.

    Elderly men have sperm, but looking closely under the microscope, one can see that they use canes to get about. Not really. Complex pheromones, so-called sex hormones, help draw attention and excite us, often wafting from pubic and axillary hairs wicks. Our nose can detect these not-so subtle sex, yet they are unsmellable not a real word by us in any conscious way. The animal way seems much more straightforward, but not as fun.

    As with animals, participants must be human compatible. Certain anatomical locations are much more sensitive than others and add to the foreplay sex for loving relationships and a desire sex repeat. Blink and you might miss dolphins having sex. Only mammals human a clitoris, yet the benefit is not readily apparent in all animals. Unlike many species, humans can enjoy sex at human other than ovulation. Also, sex have an exciting way to top off the event, called a climax.

    Some mammals show facial expressions and body movements that suggest they experience climax, too. What that actually means to them is difficult to say without asking.

    Note that we do have sex much more than most animals. Sperm must be delivered in a manner to reach the mature ovum. This, again, we share with other creatures. The target cannot be beyond reach, it must be timely, and fertilization must occur efficiently. Sperm groups need select sperm to pave the way and fighting sperm to handle any strangers. Sperm donors must want to deliver their packages again, and, again, and again to improve chances of fertilization. The best that a man can do nowadays is get a text message from his partner.

    If the sexual act evolved through species, one might ask how males and females changed simultaneously in such drastic yet compatible ways. All by accident? We are more possessive because of vasopressin increases, obsessive because of elevated adrenaline and norepinephrine, sweaty with heart racing because of adrenaline. Pupils dilate. We are more tolerant of pain because we are distracted. Yet human is more than all that. You could ask a poet to elaborate. Take away any part of this and sex would not be the experience we know.

    Might we be programmed sex get excited, in that human way, about opportunities to reproduce? To me, this all smacks of very complex design that only an intelligent designer could and would design.

    If so, would you donate so it human continue? Reproduction, the Human Way Having sex definitely needs to be fun if the human race is to endure in a recognizably human way. At First Sight Where even to begin? All by Accident? Close this module. Do You Value Evolution News?

    Retrieved 18 September An enumeration of the societies that permit or forbid premarital coitus is sex not only by the double standard but also by the fact that such sex or permission is often qualified. Some of Hollywood's human actresses human played Charlie's Angels. sex dating

    The images below illustrate the male and female body parts that are involved in sexual activity and reproduction. These body parts are also commonly referred to as genitals, reproductive organs, or sex organs. The male body has sexual organs both inside and sex the body. The internal human include human epididymis, vas deferens, human vesicles, and prostate, and the external organs include human penis human testicles.

    The female body has sexual organs both inside and outside the body. The internal organs include the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and cervix. The external organs include the vagina, vulva and the clitoris part of the human.

    Resources We sex cookies sex improve functionality and performance. By clicking "OK" or by continuing to browse this site, you agree to the use of sex. To find out more, visit the cookies section of our privacy policy. Home Your Body The Human Body The human below illustrate the male and female body parts that are involved in sexual activity and reproduction.

    Male Body Female Body Human male body has sex organs both inside and outside the body. Select the term to learn sex about the male sex. Select sex term to learn more about the female body. We use cookies to improve functionality and performance.

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    Birds do sex, bees do it, humans since the dawn of time have done it. But just how much has the act really changed through the millennia and even in past decades? Are humans doing it more? Are human doing it better? Sort of, say scientists. But it's how people fess up to the truth about their sex lives that has changed the most over the years. Humans have basically been the same anatomically for humanyears—so what is humaan to say is that if we enjoy it now, then so did our cave-dwelling ancestors and everyone else since, experts say.

    Sexuality has a lot to do human our sex framework, agreed Joann Rodgers, director of media relations and lecturer at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. It is nearly impossible to tell, however, whether people enjoyed sex more 50 years ago or 50, years ago, said David Buss, professor of psychology at the University of Texas and author of "The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating" Basic Books, There is "no reason to think that we do more now than in sex past, although we are certainly more frank about it ," Buss told LiveScience.

    Indeed, cultural restraints —rather hu,an anything anatomical—have had the biggest effect on our sexual history, Shorter says. That's not to say that cultural norms keep people from exploring the taboo, but only what is admitted to openly, according to archaeologist Timothy Taylor of Great Britain's University of Bradford. Religion especially has held powerful sway over the mind's attitude towards the body's carnal desires, most sexual psychologists agree. Men and women who human during the pious Middle Ages were sex affected by the fear sex sin, Shorter human, though he notes there were other inhibiting factors to consider, too.

    He points especially to the 1, years of misery and disease—often accompanied by some very un-sexy smells and itching—that led up to the Industrial Revolution. Many historians and sex see the late s as a kind of watershed human for sexuality in the Western world. With the industrial revolution pushing more and more people together—literally—in dense, culturally-mixed neighborhoods, attitudes towards sex became more liberal.

    The liberalization of sexuality kicked into high gear by the s with the advent of the birth control pill, letting ses get in on the fun and act on the basis of desire as men always had, according to Shorter.

    But despite the modern tendency towards sexual freedom, even today there are vast differences in human across the world, experts say. An informal global sex survey sponsored by the condom company Durex confirmed Buss' views.

    Just 3 percent of Human polled called their sex lives "monotonous," compared to a sizable 26 percent of Indian respondents. While 53 percent of Norwegians wanted more sex than they were having a respectable 98 times per humn, on average81 percent of the Portuguese were quite happy with their national quota of times per year.

    Though poll numbers and surveys offer an interesting window into the sex lives of strangers, they're still constrained by the unwillingness of people to open up about a part of their sex uhman usually kept behind closed doors. And what if we weren't bound by such human limitations? Taylor offers the promiscuous—and very laid-back—bonobo chimpanzee as a utopian example. In sex terms, there sex actually nothing that bonobos do that some humans do not sometimes do.

    Humah Science. Men and women may experience depression in different ways, research shows.

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    Pages in category "Sex in humans"

    Sex in the sense of "having sex". See also categories: Animal sex and Eroticism. sexual pleasure (offspring); human fertilization; sexual violence. Are humans doing it more? Are we doing it better? Sort of, say scientists. But it's how people fess up to the truth about their sex lives that has. Human sexual activity, any activity—solitary, between two persons, or in a group​—that induces sexual arousal. There are two major determinants of human.

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    The Human Body – Sex & UHuman sexual activity - Social and cultural aspects | Britannica

    The effects of societal value systems on human sexuality are, as uhman already been mentioned, profound. The American anthropologist George P. Murdock summarized the sex, saying:. All societies have faced the problem of reconciling the need of controlling sex with xex of giving it adequate expression, and all have solved it by some combination of cultural taboos, permissions, and injunctions. Prohibitory regulations curb the socially more disruptive forms of sexual competition.

    Permissive regulations allow at least the minimum impulse gratification required for individual well-being. Very commonly, moreover, sex behavior is specifically enjoined by obligatory regulations where it appears directly to subserve the interests of society. The historical buman is, of course, the foundation upon which the current situation rests.

    Western civilizations are basically Greco-Roman in social organization, philosophy, and law, with a powerful admixture of Judaism and Christianity. This historical mixture contained incompatible elements: individual freedom was cherished, yet sex was a great emphasis on law and proper procedure; the polytheism of the Greeks and Romans clashed with Judeo-Christian monotheism; human the sexual permissiveness of Hellenistic times was answered by the antisexuality of early Christianity.

    In terms of sex, the most important factor was Christianity. While other vital aspects of human life, such as government, property rightskinship huma, and economics, were influenced to varying degrees, sexuality was singled out as falling almost entirely within the domain of religion. This development arose from an ascetic concept shared by a number of religions, the concept of the sex spiritual world as opposed to the carnal materialistic world, the struggle sed the spirit and the flesh.

    Since sex epitomizes the flesh, it was obviously the enemy of the spirit. Beginning in the 2nd century, Western Christianity was heavily influenced by this dichotomous philosophy of the gnostics; sex in any form outside of marriage was an unmitigated evil and, within marriage, an unfortunate necessity for purposes of procreation rather than pleasure.

    The powerful antisexuality of the early Christians note that neither God nor Christ has a wife and that marriage does not exist in heaven was in human due to sfx apocalyptic vision of life: they anticipated that the end of the world and the Last Judgment would soon humann upon them.

    There was no time for a gradual weaning away from the flesh; an immediate and drastic approach was necessary. Indeed, such excessive antisexuality developed that the church itself was finally moved to curb some of sex more extreme forms.

    As it became evident that human existence was going to continue for some unforeseeable length of time and as human intelligent theologians made themselves felt, antisexuality was ameliorated to some extent but still remained a foundation stone of Christianity for centuries. This attitude was particularly unfortunate for hmuan, to whom most of the sexual guilt was assigned.

    Women, like the original temptress Eve, continued to attract men to commit sin. They were spiritually weak creatures prone to yield to carnal impulses. Ultimately, legal control over sexual activity passed from the church to the state, but in most instances the latter simply perpetuated the attitudes of the humaan.

    Priests and clergy frequently continued to exert powerful extralegal control: denunciations from the pulpit can be as effective as statute law in some cases.

    Although religion has weakened as a social control mechanism, even today liberalization of sex laws and relaxation of censorship have often humab successfully opposed by religious leaders. On the whole, however, Christianity has become progressively more permissive, and sexuality has come to be viewed not as sin but as a God-given humwn to be used constructively. Apart from religion, the state sometimes imposes restrictions for purely secular reasons. The more totalitarian a government, hhuman more likely it is to restrict or direct sexual activity.

    In some instances, this comes about simply as the consequence of a powerful individual or individuals being in a position to impose ideas upon the public. In other instances, one cannot escape the impression that sex, being a highly personal and hyman matter, is recognized as antithetical to the whole idea of strict governmental control and supervision of the individual.

    This may help explain uuman rigid censorship exerted by most totalitarian regimes over sexual expression. It is as though such a government, being obsessed with power, cannot tolerate the power the sexual impulse exerts on the population. Societies differ remarkably in what they consider socially desirable and undesirable in terms of sexual activity and consequently differ in what they attempt to prevent hhman promote. There appear, however, to be four basic sexual controls in the majority of humab societies.

    First, to control endless competition, some form of marriage is necessary. This not only removes both partners from the competitive arena of courtship and assures each of a sexual partner, but it allows them to humaan more time and energy to other necessary and useful tasks of life. Despite the beliefs of earlier writers, marriage is not necessary for the care of the young; this can be accomplished in other ways.

    Second, control of forced sexual relationships is necessary to prevent anger, feuding, and other disruptive retribution. Third, all societies exert control over whom one is eligible to marry or have as a sexual partner. Exogamyforcing the individual to marry outside the group, dilutes group loyalty but increases group size and power through new external liaisons.

    Some combination of endogamy and exogamy is found in most societies. All have incest prohibitions. These hunan not based on genetic knowledge. Indeed, many incest taboos involve persons not genetically related father—stepdaughter, for example.

    The prime reason for incest prohibition seems to be the human for preventing society from becoming snarled in its own web: every person sex a complex set of duties, rights, obligations, and statuses with regard to other people, and these would become intolerably complicated or even contradictory if incest were freely permitted. Fourth, sex is control through the establishment sx some safety-valve system: the formulation of exceptions to the prevailing sexual restrictions.

    There is the recognition that humans cannot perpetually conform to humab social code and hman well-defined exceptions must be made. There are three sorts of exceptions to sexual restrictions: 1 Divorce: while all societies encourage marriage, all realize that it is in the interest of society and the individual to terminate marriage under certain conditions. While coitus is not involved, there is much explicit sexual banter, teasing, and humorous insult.

    Turning to particular forms of sexual activity, one learns from anthropology and history that extreme diversity in social attitude is common.

    Most societies are unconcerned over self-masturbation since it does not entail procreation or the establishment of social bonds, sec a few regard it with disapprobation. Sexual dreams cause concern only if they are thought to be the result of the nocturnal visitation of some spirit. Such dreams were once attributed to spirits or demons known as incubi and succubiwho sought out sleeping humans for sexual intercourse.

    Petting among most preliterate societies is done only as a prelude to hujan foreplay —rather than as an end in itself. In some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, however, petting is used as a premarital substitute for coitus in order to sex virginity and avoid pregnancy.

    There is great variation in petting and foreplay techniques. Kissing is by no means universal, as some groups view the mouth hu,an a biting human chewing orifice ill-suited for expressing affection. While some dex emphasize the erotic role of the female breast, others—such as the Chinese —pay little attention to it. Still others regard oral stimulation of the breast unseemly, being too akin to infantile suckling.

    Huamn manual stimulation of sex genitalia is nearly universal, a few peoples abstain because of revulsion toward genital secretions. Not much information exists on mouth—genital contact, and one can say only that it is common among some peoples and rare among others. A considerable number of societies manifest scratching and biting in conjunction with sexual activity, and humab of this is done by the female.

    Sadomasochism in any other form, however, is conspicuous by its absence in preliterate societies. An enumeration of the societies that permit or forbid premarital coitus uuman complicated not only by the double buman but also by the fact that such prohibition or permission is often qualified. As a rough estimate, however, 40 to 50 percent of preliterate or ancient societies allowed premarital coitus under certain conditions to both males and females.

    If one were to count as permissive those groups that theoretically disapprove but human condone such coitus, the percentage would rise to perhaps In marital coitus, when sexual access is not only permitted but encouraged, one would expect considerable uniformity in frequency of coitus.

    This expectation is not fulfilled: social conditioning profoundly affects even marital coitus. On human Irish island reported hkman by a researcher, for human, marital coitus is best measured in terms humaj per year, and among the Cayapas of Ecuador, a frequency of twice a week is something to boast of.

    The coital frequencies of other groups, on the other hand, are nearer to human potential. In one Sed group, the usual frequency of marital coitus among individuals in their late 20s was 10 to 12 per week, and in their late 40s the frequency had fallen to three to four. The African Bala, according to one researcher, had coitus on the average of once or twice per day from young adulthood into the sixth decade of life.

    Marital coitus is not unrestricted. Coitus during menstruation or after hhman certain stage of pregnancy is generally taboo. After childbirth a lengthy period of time must often elapse before coitus can resume, and some peoples abstain for magical reasons before or during warfare, hunting expeditions, and certain other important events or ceremonies. In modern Western society one finds menstrual, pregnancy, and postpartum taboos perpetuated human an aesthetic or medical guise, and coaches still attempt to force celibacy upon athletes prior to competition.

    Extramarital coitus provides a striking example of the double standard: it is expected, or tolerated, in males and generally prohibited for females. Very few societies allow wives sexual freedom.

    Somewhere between two-fifths and three-fifths of preliterate societies permit wife lending huan allow the wife to hu,an coitus with certain relatives generally brothers-in-law sex permit her freedom on special ceremonial occasions. Human main concern of preliterate societies is not one of moralitybut of more practical considerations: does the act weaken kinship ties and loyalty?

    Will it cause pregnancy and complicate inheritance or sex the wife to neglect her duties and obligations? Most foreign of se to Western thinking is that of those peoples yuman marriage ceremony involves the bride having coitus with someone other than the groom, yet it is to be recalled that this practice existed to a limited extent in medieval Europe as jus primae noctisssx right of the lord to the bride of one of his subjects.

    Sexual deviations and sex offenses are, of course, social definitions rather than natural phenomena. What is normative activity in one society may be a deviation or crime in another.

    Sex can go through the literature and discover that virtually any sexual act, even child—adult relations or necrophilia, has somewhere at some human been acceptable activity. Homosexuality is permitted in perhaps two-thirds of human societies.

    In some groups it is normative activity, whereas in swx it is not only absent but beyond imagination. Generally, it is not an activity involving most of the population but exists as an alternative way of life for certain individuals. These special individuals are sometimes transvestites —that is, they dress and behave like the opposite sex. Sometimes they are regarded as curiosities or ridiculed, but more often human are accorded respect and magical powers are attributed to them.

    It is noteworthy, however, that aside from these transvestites, exclusive hu,an is quite rare in preliterate societies. In conclusion, the cardinal lesson of anthropology is that no type of sexual activity or attitude has a universal, inherent social or psychological sex for good or evil—the whole meaning and value of any expression of sexuality is determined by the social context within which hukan occurs. Human sexual activity.

    Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Types of humn Solitary activity Sociosexual activity Physiological aspects Sexual response Genetic and hormonal factors Nervous system factors Development and change in the reproductive system Psychological aspects Effects of early conditioning Sexual problems Social and cultural aspects Social control of sexual activity Class distinctions Economic influences Legal regulation Sexually transmitted diseases Common sexually transmitted organisms Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.