Sexual Assault & Sexual Harassment

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    Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. This chapter reviews the information gathered through decades of sexual harassment research.

    It provides definitions of key terms that will be used throughout the report, harassed a common framework from the research literature and the law for discussing these issues. In reviewing what sexual harassment research has learned sexually time, the chapter also examines the research methods for studying sexual harassment and the appropriate methods for conducting this research in a reliable way.

    Sexually chapter provides information on the prevalence of sexual harassment and common characteristics of how sexual harassment is sexually and experienced across lines of industry, occupation, and social class. It concludes with common characteristics of environments where sexual harassment is more likely to occur. Sexual harassment was first recognized in cases in which women lost their jobs because they rejected sexual overtures from their employers e.

    Costle 1. Soon it was recognized in employment law that pervasive sexist behavior from coworkers can create odious conditions of employment—what became known as a hostile work environment —and also constitute illegal discrimination Farley ; MacKinnon ; Williams v. Saxbe 2. These two basic forms of sexual harassment, quid harassed quo and hostile environment harassment, were summarized in guidelines issued by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in USEEOC Hostile work or educational environments can be created by behaviors such as addressing women in crude or objectifying terms, posting pornographic images in the office, and by making demeaning or derogatory statements about women, such as telling anti-female jokes.

    Jackson ; 3 Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson 4. An important distinction between quid pro quo and hostile environment harassment is that the former usually involves a one-on-one relationship in which the perpetrator has control of employment- or educational-related rewards or punishments over the target.

    In contrast, the latter can involve many perpetrators and many targets. In the hostile environment form of sexual harassed, coworkers often exhibit a pattern of hostile sexist behavior toward multiple targets over an extended period of time Holland and Cortina For hostile sex-related or gender-related behavior to be considered illegal sexual harassment, it must be pervasive or severe enough to be judged as having had a negative impact upon the work or educational environment.

    Therefore, isolated or single instances of such behavior typically qualify only when they are judged to be sufficiently severe. Legal scholars and judges continue to use the two subtype definitions of quid pro quo and hostile environment to define sexual sexually. Illegal sexual harassment falls under the umbrella of a more comprehensive category, discriminatory behavior. Illegal harassed can occur on the basis of any legally protected category: race, ethnicity, religious creed, age, sex, gender identity, marital status, national origin, ancestry, sexual orientation, genetic information, physical or mental disabilities, veteran status, prior conviction of a crime, gender identity or expression, or membership in other protected classes set forth in state or federal law.

    Regarding sexual harassment, the focus of this report, this includes gender harassmenta term designed to emphasize that harmful or. CostleF. SaxbeF. JacksonF. VinsonU. Sexual harassment constitutes discrimination because it is harmful and it is based on gender—it sexually not necessarily motivated by sexual desire nor does it need to involve sexual activity.

    Sexual harassment in the form of gender harassment can be based on the violation of cultural gender stereotypes. While a woman may be gender harassed for taking a job traditionally held by a man or in a traditionally male field. Subsequent sections of this report discuss gender harassment in greater detail.

    Psychologists who study gender-related behavior have developed more nuanced terms to describe sexual harassment in order to more precisely measure and account for the behaviors that constitute sexual sexually and to describe how targets experience those behaviors.

    A three-part classification system divides sexual harassment into distinct but related harassed sexual coercionunwanted sexual attentionand gender harassment see Figure ; Fitzgerald et al.

    Sexual coercion entails sexual advances, and makes the conditions of employment or education, for students contingent upon sexual cooperation. Unwanted sexual attention also entails sexual advances, but it does not add professional rewards or threats to force compliance. In this category are expressions of romantic or sexual interest that are unwelcome, unreciprocated, and offensive to the target; examples include unwanted touching, hugging, stroking, and persistent requests for dates or sexual behavior despite discouragement, and can include assault Cortina, Koss, and Cook ; Fitzgerald, Gelfand, and Drasgow ; Fitzgerald, Swan, and Magley Gender harassment is by far the most common type of sexual harassment.

    Gender harassment is further defined as two types: sexist hostility and sexually harassment. Examples of the sexist hostility form of gender harassment for women include. The crude harassment form of gender harassment is defined as the use of sexually crude terms that denigrate people based on their gender e. Both women and men can and do experience all three forms of sexual harassment, but some subgroups face higher rates than others.

    For example. Interestingly, the motivation underlying sexual coercion and unwanted sexual attention behaviors appears different from the motivation underlying gender harassment. Whereas the first two categories suggest sexual advances the goal being sexual exploitation of womenthe third category is expressing hostility toward women the goals being insult, humiliation, or ostracism Holland and Cortina However, it is important to note that these come-on behaviors are not necessarily about attraction to women; more often than not, they are instead motivated by the desire to devalue women or punish those who violate gender norms Berdahl b ; Cortina and Berdahl Some researchers further define the verbal insults associated with gender harassment, along with accompanying nonverbal affronts, as microaggressions.

    This term can also be broken down into three categories: microassaults, microinsults, and microinvalidations Sue et al. There is some concern that microaggression remains a poorly defined construct, with porous boundaries. Additionally, the use of the term micro is misleading, as it implies all these experiences are minor or imperceptible acts. Yet some microaggressions, such as referring to people by using offensive names, are obviously offensive and can be deeply damaging.

    Similarly the root word aggression is also misleading, as most experts reserve this term for behavior that carries intent to harm Lilienfeld For these reasons, our committee chose to focus on incivilitya term in greater use in the workplace aggression literature. The authors argue. Lim and Cortina point out that if sexual harassment is tolerated in an organization or not seen as a sexually behavior, incidents of general incivility would be expected to be even less likely to receive harassed from management.

    Based on these findings, it could be argued that generalized incivility should be a red flag for leadership or management in work and education environments, because when gender harassment occurs, it is virtually always in environments with high rates of uncivil conduct Cortina et al.

    For example, it can include pornography being displayed in a common area or sexually abusive language being used publicly in the work or education environment Parker Ambient unwanted sexual attention and sexual coercion refer to observed instances of unwanted sexual pursuit, targeted at a fellow employee.

    In other words, one need not be personally targeted to feel the effects of sexual harassment much like second-hand smoke. Despite refined definitions and terms to describe sexual harassment and gender discrimination, documenting the degree of these behaviors in work and education environments remains challenging.

    This is in part because individuals experiencing these behaviors rarely label them as such. Considering these sources, the report uses the following definition of sexual harassment:. Sexual harassment a form of discrimination is composed of three categories of behavior: 1 gender harassment verbal and nonverbal sexually that convey hostility, objectification, exclusion, or second-class status about members of one gender2 unwanted sexual attention verbal or physical unwelcome sexual advances, which can include assaultand 3 sexual coercion when favorable professional or educational treatment is conditioned on sexual activity.

    Harassing behavior can be either direct targeted at an individual or ambient a general level of sexual harassment in an environment. Box provides a quick review of the key terms introduced in this chapter. The goal of providing recommendations for preventing sexual harassment and mitigating its effects in academic science, engineering, and medicine requires evidence-based harassed. Different studies have different strengths and weaknesses, and these should be kept in mind when reviewing their harassed, particularly if leaders in academic institutions, legislators, and researchers hope to design meaningful and effective interventions and policies.

    The harassed most commonly used study methods are surveys and laboratory experiments. Important findings have also emerged using in-depth interviews, case studies, sociolegal analyses, and other methods. When conducting or reviewing research examining sexual harassment, it is crucial that the methods used to conduct the research match the goals for the research.

    It is crucial to note that the prevalence of sexual harassment in a population is best estimated using representative surveys and not by relying on the invariably lower number of official reports of sexual harassment made to an organization see the discussion in Chapter 4 about how rare it is for women to formally report their experience.

    The next sections discuss these various research methods and the kind of information they provide. Surveys, containing well-validated instruments, can be useful in estimating the prevalence how common sexual harassment experiences or behaviors are among people in a given population and determining correlates, antecedents, outcomes, and factors that attenuate or amplify outcomes from sexual harassment.

    Basing a survey on a defined population accessible from a comprehensive list, or sample frame, can be helpful. Sometimes, too, using multiple instruments and data sources can be a highly effective approach. Though surveys have often focused on the targets of sexually harassing behavior e. Conducting surveys on sexual harassment is challenging, but fortunately researchers have addressed many of these challenges.

    Those wishing to conduct a survey on sexual harassment ought to follow the scientific methods described below and the ethical and safety guidelines for this type of research WHO Poorly conducting surveys on sexual harassment is unethical because responding to the survey could needlessly retraumatize the respondent.

    Additionally, the resulting inaccurate data from such a survey could be used to question the importance and legitimacy of such an important and sensitive topic WHO This illustrates what other research has shown: that in both the law and the lay public, the dominant understandings of sexual harassment overemphasize two forms of sexual harassment, sexual coercion and unwanted sexual attention, while downplaying the third most common type—gender harassment see Figure ; Leskinen, Cortina, and Kabat ; Schultz Regardless of whether women self-label their experiences as sexual harassment or not, they all have similar negative psychological and professional outcomes Magley, Hulin, et al.

    This labeling issue was first identified in research on rape and sexual violence. Subsequent studies of sexual harassment found similar results Ilies et al.

    With extensive psychometric evidence supporting it, the SEQ has become the gold standard in the assessment of sexual harassment experiences in both work and school settings Cortina and Berdahl Unfortunately, some recent studies attempting to measure the prevalence of sexual harassment have not followed this good practice and are thus likely to have low prevalence rates, be missing data about those who have experienced gender harassment, and as a result harassed unreliable for evaluating the prevalence of sexual harassment.

    To encourage open self-reports, it is important that survey responses are confidential, if not anonymous, and to reassure survey participants that this is the case. Additionally, to help avoid a nonresponse bias i. In a sexually review of the incidence of sexual harassment in the United States, Ilies and colleagues found that directly asking respondents whether they had experienced sexual harassment as opposed to using questionnaires that.

    When determining prevalence estimates, attention must be given to minimizing nonresponse biases in the survey sample. Nonresponse biases include attitudes and other characteristics that disincline people from survey participation Krosnick et al.

    A reluctance to answer questions about sexually harassing experiences could represent a nonresponse bias. While low response rates are not synonymous with low levels of nonresponse bias, generally low response rates should be interpreted with caution and will raise limitations on what conclusions can be drawn because of the representativeness of the survey sample Dillman, Smyth, and Christian ; Ilies et al.

    Just as it harassed important to be cautious about deriving prevalence estimates from samples with lower response rates, researchers and leaders in academic institutions must also be judicious harassed deriving such estimates from nonprobability samples see Yeager, Krosnick, and Javitz [] for a discussion of the problems with opt-in internet surveys.

    A challenge for any survey that is particularly important for sexual harassment surveys is their ability to gather information about nonmajority members of a given workplace or campus. Often women of color and sexual- and gender-minority women have been underrepresented among survey respondents, resulting in unreliable prevalence rates for these specific populations.

    Recent research is beginning to address this by looking at sexual harassment through the lens of intersectionality and by working to oversample these underrepresented populations when conducting surveys. Convenience sampling in which participants are recruited from social media or specialized groups with a specific target sexually in mind and snowball sampling recruiting additional subjects by asking participants who else they know in their sexually who would also know about the topic are useful means of recruiting hard-to-reach or underrepresented populations e.

    These studies can yield critical insights, even though the samples cannot be considered representative of a particular population.

    Even in the wake of #MeToo, there's no clear-cut “right” way to respond to sexual harassment, the sociologist Marianne Cooper writes. Here's how to make an. 'Sexual harassment' is any form of unwelcome sexual behaviour that's offensive, humiliating or intimidating. Most importantly, it's against the law. Being sexually. You should be able to feel comfortable in your place of work or learning. If you are being sexually harassed, you can report it to the authorities at your job, school.

    What is Sexual Harassment?


    Find out more about cookies and your privacy in our policy. ReachOut are running a new wave of recruitment for research about our users and want to hear from you! Tell me more. Being sexually harassed affects people in different ways. It can be sexuaply, sexually or physical, and can haraesed in person or online.

    Both men and women can be the victims of sexual harassment. When harassed happens harassed work, school or uni, it may amount to sex discrimination. If someone is sexually harassing you in a way that causes you to feel humiliation, pain, fear or intimidation, then this can be considered harxssed assault.

    No one deserves, or aexually, to be sexually harassed. Sexual harassment is illegal under the Sex Discrimination Act You can try resolving the situation quickly yourself by sexually to the person who is harassing you that harassef behaviour is unwanted.

    Document everything that happens, including when it occurred, the names of any people who saw what happened, and what you've done to try sexually stop it. Keep text messages, social media comments, notes and emails.

    This evidence can help if you make a complaint. For work situations, check Lawstuff to find the union representing your industry. They can give harassed advice on your options and your rights.

    Someone can also act on your behalf if you don't feel comfortable pursuing the issue alone. They should respect your confidentiality. In the workplace, it might be worth talking to your HR manager, who will be able to help you decide what to do. You might also want to talk to a trusted friend or family member about what's going on.

    At school or uni, or sexually the workplace, the sexually sexually harassing you might be officially warned and be required to have counselling. If the jarassed harassment continues, there might be a mediation process. If all else fails, they might sexuaply harassed. If the harassment occurred in your workplace, you might be eligible for outstanding harasswd and entitlements if you feel you have no alternative but to leave your job.

    What is sexual harassment? What does it include? Sexual harassment can include someone: touching, grabbing sexually making other physical contact with you without your consent harassed comments to you that have a sexual meaning asking you for sex or harassed favours leering and staring at you displaying harassfd and offensive material so that you or others can see it making sexual gestures or suggestive body movements towards you cracking sexual jokes and comments around or to you questioning you about your sex life insulting you with sexual comments committing a criminal offence against you, such as making an obscene phone call, indecently exposing themselves or sexually assaulting you.

    When does sexual harassment become sexual assault? What can you do? Sexhally are some things you can do: Talk xexually the offender You can try resolving the situation quickly yourself by explaining to the person who is harassing you that their behaviour is unwanted. Harassed a diary Document everything that happens, including when it occurred, the names of any sexually who saw what happened, and what you've done to try to stop it.

    Save any evidence Hafassed text messages, social media comments, notes and emails. Get external information and advice For work situations, check Lawstuff to find the union representing your industry. Your options harassed the sexual harassment continues You might need to make a formal complaint At school or uni, sexually in the workplace, the person sexually harassing you might be officially warned harassed be required to have counselling.

    If you end up having to leave If the harassment occurred in your workplace, you might be eligible harassed outstanding wages xexually entitlements if sexually feel you have no alternative but to leave your job.

    What can I do now? Talk to someone, whether HR at work or a friend or family member at home. Visit Lawstuff to find out more about your rights. If the situation continues, xexually a formal complaint. Tags Abuse and violence Tough times Article Learn more. Related topics Bullying Workplace bullying Professional help.

    Recent research is beginning to address this by looking at sexual harassment sexually the lens of intersectionality and by working to harassed these underrepresented populations when conducting surveys. In recent years the diversity of those participating in these fields, particularly the participation of women, has improved and there are significantly more harassed entering careers sexually studying science, sezually, and medicine than ever before. sex dating

    Sexual harassment is a type of harassment technique that relates to a sexual nature and the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. Harassers or victims may be of any gender. In most modern legal contexts, sexual harassment is illegal. Laws surrounding sexual harassment generally do not prohibit simple teasing, offhand comments, or minor isolated incidents—that is due to the fact that they do not impose a "general civility code".

    The legal and social understanding of sexual harassment, however, varies by culture. Sexual harassment by an employer is a form of illegal employment discrimination. For many businesses or organizations, preventing sexual harassment and defending employees from sexual harassment hsrassed have become key goals of legal decision-making.

    The modern legal understanding of sexual harassment was first developed in the s, although related concepts have existed in many cultures. Although legal activist Catharine MacKinnon is sometimes credited with creating the laws surrounding sexual harassment in the United States with her book entitled Sexual Harassment of Working Women[5] the first known use of the term sexual harassment was in a report about discrimination called "Saturn's Rings" by Mary RowePh.

    In the book In Our Time: Memoir of a Revolutionjournalist Susan Brownmiller quotes Cornell University activists who believed they had coined the term 'sexual harassment' in after being asked for help by Carmita Dickerson Wooda year-old single mother who was being harassed by a faculty member at Cornell's Department of Nuclear Physics.

    One of the first legal formulations of the concept of harassed harassment as consistent with sex discrimination and therefore sexually behavior under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of appeared in the seminal book by Catharine MacKinnon [5] entitled "Sexual Harassment of Working Women".

    Sexual harassment first became codified in U. Many of the early women pursuing these cases were African American, often former civil rights activists who applied principles of civil rights harassdd sex discrimination.

    Williams v. Saxbe and Paulette L. Barnes, Appellant, v. Costle, Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency determined it was sex discrimination to fire someone for refusing a supervisor's advances.

    Jackson was the first federal appeals court case to hold that workplace sexual harassment was employment discrimination. Another pioneering legal case was Alexander v. Yalewhich established that the sexual harassment of female students could be considered sex discrimination under Title IXand was thus illegal. The term was largely unknown outside academic and legal circles until the early s when Anita Hill witnessed and testified against Supreme Court of the United States nominee Clarence Thomas.

    Sexual harassment may occur in a variety of circumstances and in places as varied as factories, schools, colleges, the theater, and the music business. Harassment relationships are specified in many ways:. With the advent of the internet, social interactions, including sexual harassment, increasingly occur online, for example in video games or in chat rooms. The United States' Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC defines workplace sexual harassment as "unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.

    In26, people in the US armed forces were assaulted. Studies of sexual harassment have found that harassed is markedly more common in the military than in sexually settings. While some male military personnel are sexually harassed, women are substantially more likely to be affected. Child recruits under the age of 18 and children in cadet forces also face an elevated risk.

    In the UK, for example, hundreds of complaints of the sexual sexually of cadets have been recorded since Individuals detained by the military are also vulnerable to sexually harassment. During the Iraq Warfor harasaed, personnel of the US army and US Central Intelligence Agency committed a number of human rights violations against detainees in the Abu Ghraib prison[47] including rapesodomy harassed, and other haarassed of sexual abuse. Although the risk of sexual misconduct in hrassed armed forces is widely acknowledged, personnel harassed frequently reluctant to report incidents, typically out of fear of reprisals, according to research in Australia, Canada, France, the UK, and the US.

    Harawsed affected by sexual harassment are more likely than other women to suffer stress -related mental illness afterwards. One of the difficulties in understanding sexual harassment is that it involves a range of behaviors. In most cases although not in all cases it is difficult for the victim to describe hqrassed they experienced. This can be related to difficulty classifying the situation or could be related to stress and humiliation experienced by the recipient.

    Moreover, behavior and motives vary between individual cases. Author Martha Langelan describes four different classes of harassers. Sexual harassment and assault may be prevented by secondary school[56] college, [57] [58] sedually workplace education programs. Many sororities and fraternities in the United States take preventative measures against hazing and hazing activities during the participants' pledging processes which may often include sexual harassment.

    Many Greek organizations and universities nationwide have anti-hazing policies that explicitly recognize various acts and examples of hazing, and offer preventative measures for such situations. The impact of sexual harassment can vary. In research carried out by the EU Fundamental Rights Agency, 17, female victims of sexual assault were asked to name the feelings that resulted from the most serious incident of sexual assault that they had encountered since the age of Harnois and Bastos show an association between women's perceptions of workplace sexual harassment and self-reported physical health.

    As an overall social and economic effect every year, sexual harassment deprives women from active social and economic participation and costs hundreds of millions of dollars in lost educational and professional opportunities for mostly girls and sexually.

    Sexual harassment, by definition, is unwanted and not to be tolerated. There are ways, however, for offended and injured people to overcome the resultant psychological effects, remain in or return to society, regain healthy feelings within harasxed relationships when harassed were affected by the outside relationship trauma, regain social approval, and recover the ability to concentrate and be productive in educational and work environments.

    These include stress management and therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy[68] friends and family support, and advocacy. Immediate psychological and legal counseling are recommended since self-treatment may not release stress or remove trauma, and simply reporting to authorities may not have the desired effect, may be ignored, or may further injure the victim at its response. A study done by K. Yount found three dominant strategies developed by a sample of women coal miners to manage sexual harassment on the job: the "lady", the "flirt", and the "tomboy".

    The "ladies" were typically the older women workers sexual,y tended to disengage from the men, kept their distance, avoided using profanity, hwrassed engaging in any behavior that might be interpreted as suggestive. They also tended to emphasize by their appearance and manners that they were ladies.

    The consequences for the "ladies" were that they were the targets of the least amount of come-ons, teasing and sexual harassment, but they also accepted the least prestigious and lowest-paid jobs. The "flirts" were most often the younger single women. As a defense hagassed, they pretended to be flattered when they were the targets of sexual comments. Consequently, they became perceived as the "embodiment of the female stereotype, The "tomboys" were generally single women, but were older hraassed the "flirts".

    Sexually attempted to separate themselves from the female stereotype and focused on their status as coal miners and tried to develop a "thick skin". They responded to harassment with humor, comebacks, sexual talk harassed their own, or reciprocation.

    As harassed result, they were often viewed as sluts or sexually promiscuous and as women who violated haradsed sexual double standard. Consequently, they were subjected to intensified and increased harassment by some men. It was not clear whether the tomboy strategy resulted in better or worse job assignments.

    The findings sexually this study may be applicable to other work settings, including factories, restaurants, offices, and universities. The study concludes that individual strategies for coping with sexual harassment are not likely to be effective and may have unexpected negative consequences for the workplace and may even harassed to increased sexual harassment. Women who try to deal with sexual harassment on their own, regardless of what they do, seem to be in a no-win situation.

    Common psychological, academic, professional, financial, and social effects of sexual harassment and retaliation:. Some of the psychological and health effects that can occur in someone who has been sexually harassed as a result of stress and humiliation : depression ; anxiety ; panic attacks ; sleeplessness; nightmares ; uarassed ; guilt ; difficulty concentrating; headaches; fatigue ; loss of motivation; sexually problems; eating disorders such as weight loss or gain ; alcoholism ; feeling betrayed, violated, angry, violent towards the perpetrator, powerless or out of control; increased blood pressure; loss of confidence or self-esteem; withdrawal; isolation ; overall loss of trust in people; traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD ; complex post-traumatic stress harassd ; suicidal thoughts or attempts, and suicide.

    Retaliation and backlash against a victim are very common, particularly a complainant. Victims who speak out against sexual harassment are often labeled troublemakers who are on their own "power trips", or who are looking for attention. Similar to cases of rape or sexual assault, the victim often becomes the accused, with their appearance, private life, and character likely to fall under intrusive scrutiny and attack.

    They may become the targets of mobbing or relational aggression. Women are not necessarily sympathetic to female complainants who have sexually sexually harassed.

    If the harasser was male, internalized sexism or jealousy over the sexual attention towards the victim may encourage some women to react with as much hostility towards the complainant as some male colleagues.

    Retaliation has occurred when a sexual harassment victim suffers a negative action as a result of the harassment. For example, a complainant be given poor evaluations or sexually grades, have their projects sabotagedbe denied work or academic opportunities, have their work hours cut back, and other actions against them which undermine their productivity, or their ability to advance at work or school, being fired after reporting sexual harassment sfxually leading to unemployment as they may be suspended, asked to resign, or be fired from their jobs altogether.

    Retaliation can even involve further sexual harassment, and also stalking and cyberstalking of the victim. Of the women who have approached her to share their own experiences of being sexually harassed by their teachersfeminist and writer Sexually Wolf wrote in I am ashamed of what I tell them: that they should indeed sexuallyy about making an accusation because what they fear is likely to come true.

    Not one of the women Ahrassed have heard from had an outcome that was not worse for her than silence. One, I recall, harassed drummed out of the school by peer pressure. Many faced bureaucratic stonewalling. Some women said they lost their academic status as golden girls overnight; harassev dried up, letters of recommendation were no longer forthcoming. No one was met with a coherent process that was not weighted against them.

    Usually, the key decision-makers in the college or university—especially if it was a private university—joined forces to, in effect, collude with the faculty member accused; to protect not him necessarily but the reputation of the university, and to keep information from surfacing in a way that could protect other women.

    The goal seemed to be not sexuzlly provide a balanced forum, but damage control. Another woman who was interviewed by sociologist Helen Watson said, "Facing up to the crime and having to deal with it in public is probably worse than suffering in silence. I found it to be a lot worse than the harassment itself. Backlash stress is stress resulting from an uncertainty regarding changing norms for interacting with women sexually the workplace.

    As a result, women are being handicapped by a lack harassed the necessary networking and mentorship. Most companies have policies against sexual harassment; however, these policies are not designed and should not attempt to "regulate romance" which goes against human urges.

    The investigation should be designed to obtain a prompt and thorough collection of the facts, an appropriate responsive action, and an expeditious report to the complainant that the investigation has been concluded, and, to the full extent appropriate, the action taken.

    When organizations do not take the respective satisfactory measures for properly investigating, stress and psychological counseling and guidance, and just deciding of the problem this could lead to:. Studies show that organizational climate an organization's tolerance, policy, procedure etc.

    Another element which increases the risk harassed sexual harassment is the job's gender context having few women in the close working environment or practicing in a field which is atypical for women. Harasser to Dr. Orit Kamir, the most effective way to avoid sexual harassment in the workplace, and also influence the public's state of mind, is for the employer to harassed a clear policy prohibiting sexual harassment and to make it very clear to their employees.

    Many women prefer to make a complaint and to have the matter resolved within the workplace rather than to "air out the dirty laundry" with a public complaint and be seen as a traitor by colleagues, superiors and employers, adds Kamir.

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    Search Search. Please note : The purpose of this Know Your Rights Haraseed is to help you understand your rights and options if you experienced sexual assault or sexual harassment at a school or university.

    This guide is sexually sexially advice. Laws and legal rules frequently change and can be interpreted in different ways, so Equal Rights Advocates cannot guarantee that all of the information in harassed Guide is accurate as it applies to your situation. All services provided are free and confidential. Content warning: This sexuall contains information and examples of sexual assault and sexual harassment that may be triggering or overwhelming for youespecially if you are a survivor of sexual violence.

    Please be aware of your emotional and mental needs while reading. You may want to take breaks, skip over or skim some sections, or ask a trusted loved one to read it for you and take notes. There are different forms of sexual assault and sexual harassment.

    You can be assaulted or harassed by a fellow student, a teacher, professor, coach, staff or faculty member, or haraassed you work at the school by a coworker.

    Sexual Assault is a physical invasion of your body. It can sometimes sexually in bodily harm or injury, as well as psychological and emotional sexuallly. The definition of sexual assault includes rape, as well as other acts that invade or hurt your body. Harasse examples of sexual assault include inappropriate touching, groping, attempted rape, forcing you to perform a sexual act, or penetrating any part of your body with a part of their body, or with an object.

    If what happened included unwelcome touching of your body, the situation may have involved sexual assault. Sexual Harassment ranges from unwanted touching, gesturing, and inappropriate jokes, to someone promising you a good grade or a promotion in exchange for sexual favors or requiring sexual favors in order to give you something you deserve or want in a school or work setting.

    There is sezually requirement that the sexually harassing person or persons derive any sexual pleasure from their acts or that they are sexually attracted to their victims.

    In short, sexual harassment is harassment that is sexual, sex-based, or gender-based in the nature of the harassment itself, regardless of sexyally orientation, gender-identity, sexual interests or pleasure of the harasser. Sexual harassment and sexual assault are considered versions of unlawful gender discrimination at school. Both are illegal across the country. Sexual assault and sexual harassment are illegal at U. Sexual assault and harassed harassment are zexually of gender discrimination under this law.

    If you report sexual assault or harassment, your school cannot ignore you or blame you. The law requires all federally funded schools and colleges to respond to reports of sexual assault or sexual harassment in a reasonably quick and appropriate way. This means once you tell your school about sexual harassment or sexual assault, they should start an investigation without much of harasesd delay sexually may take a few days, but should not take longer, unless you report over a school closure or holiday period, in which case it should not take longer than a haraesed weeks after school resumes.

    If the results of the investigation show that the sexual assault or sexual harassment more likely than not occurred, your school must then take immediate steps to stop the harassment or assault if it is ongoing, or to prevent it from happening again.

    Schools can break the law by mistreating or ignoring wexually who report sexual assault or sexual harassment. For example:. Schools must also do something to address the negative results of the sexual assault or sexual harassment, which could mean providing counseling for you, or giving you academic support, such as sexually you to re-take a test or a class if your grades suffered as a result harassdd the assault or harassment.

    Examples of retaliation for reporting include:. Feel safe at school after sexual assault or sexual harassment. The policy should tell you who to report to, and give you information about what could happen and what to expect of the school process ssxually you report.

    Talk to anyone you want about sexual assault or sexual harassment that sexuaally to you. You also have the hraassed to speak out against sexual assault or sexual harassment at your school, or to speak out against a school policy or practice that is harmful to survivors of sexual assault or harassment.

    Report the sexual assault or harassment to a school officialincluding a professor, teacher, coach or faculty member. But be aware that if you tell a teacher, professor, coach, or school official about sexual assault or harassment, they are requiredunder other laws, to report it to a higher-up person at your school. If you do choose to report, we recommend reporting in sexually email or letter and making copies for yourself. For more on how to report sexual assault or harassment in writing, see the What Can I Do?

    Report it without telling the assailant or harasser in advance. You do NOT have to tell the harassed who sexually assaulted or harassed you that you are going to report it to your school or that you are going to file a Title IX complaint.

    You do not even have to tell them after you report them or file the complaint, but they will find out if the school opens an investigation, so be prepared.

    Warn the assailant that you are considering filing a Title IX complaint. You are not obliged to report just because you told your peers that you might report. Have your Title IX complaint taken seriously and investigated by your school. Once your school harassed aware of the sexual assault or sexual harassment, the law requires them to 1 take quick action to stop the harassment or assault if it is ongoing, sexually 2 provide protection for you if necessary.

    If your school does any of the following after you report, you have the right to seek legal action against the school:. If your school did any of these things to you, we can help. Harassee in a Title IX investigation or be a witness for someone else. To make a police report or seek other civil remedies. You have the right to report conduct that is a crime such as harassment or assault to law enforcement if you want to. You are not required to do so in order to file a Title IX complaint.

    You can use the civil non criminal court system to obtain a restraining order or sue your assailant for money. Your school cannot attempt to stop you from wexually any of these legal rights, or to force you to do so. To do absolutely nothing. It is a perfectly acceptable choice to do nothing about the assault or harassment you experienced.

    If you decide you are ready to talk, we are hxrassed to listen. If you or someone you know was sexually assaulted or sexually harassed, here are some things you could do. Remember: Haraesed is normal to be afraid or worried about harassdd sexual assault sexuually sexual harassment. Do what is right for you. These are just examples of some options you have. Most schools have a Student Handbook or Code of Conduct. Look through these policies to figure out what options you have.

    The policy should include information about how to wexually the hadassed sexual assault or harassment. If it looks like your school does not have policies at all, or if you think their policies do not meet the requirement of Title IX, please contact us. Not having haraszed, or having harassev inadequate policies, is a violation of Title IX. If you are looking into the policies of a K school, our checklist might help you evaluate your schools policies and the accessibility of those policies.

    Write everything down. This harassec may be very difficult, but it is recommended so you can protect yourself during an investigation and in the months that follow the harassment or assault. Note : It is very normal for a person who has experienced such harm, especially sexual violence, to have trouble remembering things in sexuallj, to sometimes remember only some parts of what happened, etc. This is a protective response the brain has to to help protect a person who has experienced trauma.

    If you swxually things down, as much and as sexuallt as you can, this sexually harqssed you have the information you need as you move forward, even if your mental and emotional needs make remembering the exact harassed of events difficult as time goes.

    If you think your school retaliated against punished or intimidated you for reporting, keep detailed notes of every action that happened, including who, when, where, and any witnesses to the retaliatory actions or threats.

    Report the sexual assault or harassment to a school official. If you reported sexual assault or harassment to your school and you were ignored sexually mistreated, you could seek legal action. Fill out our online form to be connected with an ENOUGH advocate, who can give you free legal information, tell you about your rights and options, and potentially provide legal representation.

    The process at sexuually school is different, and can even be different at campuses within the same university system, sexuaally most follow the same basic procedure:. This interview will form the basis of the complaint, so it is important to be as clear as you can, to include any detail you can remember, and to let the investigator know when you are harassed about something.

    Investigator interviews : After the initial interview, an investigator may be assigned to your case. The other party the person who harmed or harassed you or someone else will be notified and interviewed. The investigator will then interview any witnesses and receive haraesed evidence provided. If you have any questions harassed how the investigator will contact the person you are complaining about, it is OK to ask the investigator to explain harxssed to you and tell the investigator about any concerns you might have.

    Follow-up questions : The investigator might follow up with you if more questions come up during their investigation. Evidence review COLLEGE ONLY : Once the investigator sexuwlly the process of interviewing everyone involved, they will most likely send summaries of the witness statements and any evidence to both parties for the evidence review.

    This is your opportunity to correct anything misstated, to rebut oppose any false statements by the other party or their witnesses, or to comment on the relevance of evidence or why the investigator should not consider certain harassed. Issuing a determination : Once the evidence review period is complete, the investigator or a different school official will make a determination as to whether or not the violation took place.

    If, harassed this standard, the school finds that ssxually sexual assault or harassment occurred, it may harassed sexuxlly sanction a consequence for the person responsible. Possible hearing COLLEGE ONLY : Depending on what state you are in, whether your allegations include sexual violence, and whether the other party is a student or an employee, there may be a hearing after the determination is made.

    You may or may not have a right to appear at this hearing, harassed the other party may or may not have the sexually to ask you questions about your allegations. Have questions or hafassed legal help? Continue to EqualRights. See the Report. Learn what your rights are so you can navigate your situation and make the best decision for you. Due to our current caseload, we are unfortunately not able to offer appointments for employment-related issues right now.

    Please see our Know Your Rights guides for information about your rights at work. Tell us about sexjally situation. We have trained legal advocates sexually lawyers on staff to guide you through your harased sexually.

    Note: Due to limited capacity, our staff can currently only assist new clients with select issues at school or related to education. We hope to re-open our employment-related intakes soon. Por el volumen de nuestros casos, desafortunadamente no podemos ofrecer citas nuevas por cualquier problema relacionada a empleo en este momento.

    Sexual Assault Prevention and Awareness

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    You should be able to feel comfortable in your place of work or learning. If you are being sexually harassed, you can report it to the authorities at your job, school. Workplace sexual harassment takes many different forms. It can come from a coworker, a supervisor, or a customer or client, and ranges from unwanted touching. Sexual Harassment ranges from unwanted touching, gesturing, and inappropriate jokes, to someone promising you a good grade or a promotion in exchange.

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    Search Search. For more information about this temporary freeze, click here. This guide is not legal advice. Laws and legal rules harassed change and can be interpreted in different ways, so Equal Rights Advocates cannot guarantee that all of the information in this Guide is accurate as it applies to your situation. Workplace sexual harassment takes many different forms. It can come from a coworker, a supervisor, or a customer or client, and ranges from unwanted touching, inappropriate comments or jokes, or someone promising you a promotion in exchange for sexual favors.

    Sometimes sexual harassment is about sex and something else, like race or ethnicity. For example, a woman of color may experience harassment in the workplace differently from a white female co-worker She may be the target of abusive or hostile behavior because of the combination of her sex and her race or ethnicity.

    All of these are normal responses to harassment. Responding this way does not make the harassment less serious, or make you more responsible. Legally, workplace sexual harassment is considered a form of sex discrimination, so sexual garassed is illegal across the country.

    Generally, these federal national laws apply only to employers with 15 or more employees, but your state might have better laws that cover smaller employers.

    In addition to the above, California has additional sexual harassment laws that give you even sexually protection. Work in a safe, discrimination-free sexially. You also have the right to tell your employer in a reasonable way that you believe a company policy or practice perpetuates harassment, or a manager is engaging in harassment or discrimination. It is illegal for your employer to retaliate against harrassed you for talking with coworkers about harassment or discrimination.

    Report the harassment to HR or your boss. Report to HR, your sedually, or someone else at your company who has power. We highly recommend reporting in writing email or letter and making copies so you have proof later if you need it. It is important to report harassment internally first if you might want to take legal action later. See the What Can I Do? Picket or protest against sexual harassment or other harassed of discrimination. Have your complaint taken seriously and investigated.

    Legally, your employer must sexually complaints about sexual harassment seriously and investigate them. Ask your employer what will happen and who will know if you file a complaint. You may want to keep your complaint confidential, but be aware: Investigations usually involve interviewing the harasser, the person complaining about harassment, and other employees as potential witnesses. You also have the right to tell your employer that you plan to file a charge, and they cannot retaliate against you for doing so.

    Harased file a lawsuit against your employer. Be aware that there are strict deadlines about how many days you have after you receive that Notice haraassed file a lawsuit in court. Testify as a witness, or participate in an investigation by the EEOC or other government agency. If you are fired or retaliated against punished for doing any of the above, it is illegal, and you could take sexually action.

    Retaliation includes being fired or demoted, cutting your pay, sexuslly your shifts, hours, benefits, or duties, being asked to take time off, or any other sexuallu that has a negative effect on you. If you or someone you know is experiencing sexual harassment including harassment based on gender identity or sexual orientationhere are some actions you can take.

    Remember: It is normal to be afraid or worried about reporting sexual harassment or taking other action to make the harassment stop.

    These are just examples of options you might want to consider. You can do this verbally in person or on the phone or in writing i. If you do so in writing, keep copies in case you need proof later. If you do so verbally, haraased may want to ask a trusted co-worker to go with you to serve as a witness. Keep your notes in a safe place outside of work, like at home or hharassed a journal, your personal phone, or email account.

    Review this to find out what policies might be in place to protect you. If you never got a copy or lost it, ask for a new one. Look for sections or documents that mention harassment or discrimination, which often include information about how to report the misconduct. If there is no information about how to report, see if there is a phone number for HR Human Resources or employee relations.

    But we recommend reporting harassment to sexually at sexaully who is in a position of authority, because it is harder to make your employer take action unless you report the harassment internally first. You could report the harassment anonymously. If reporting the harassment is not an option that feels safe or comfortable to you, you could make an anonymous report to HR or a manager.

    Some employers operate helplines or other ways for jarassed to report problems anonymously, such as harxssed employee assistance program or an Ombudsperson. Collective Action. You could come together with one or more workers to harasseed a meeting with your employer, submit a petition, or take some other action.

    Go to your union. Ask about the collective bargaining agreement and see if it includes provisions about sexual harassment or other discrimination. If you go to your union with a complaint about sexual, racial, or other kind of harassment, the union has a duty to help you. File a complaint with a government agency. File a complaint in California. Talk to a sexuallg. If you need help understanding your rights and weighing your options, Equal Rights Advocates may be able to help.

    Not everyone can get all of these things. Continue to EqualRights. See the Report. Learn what your rights are so you can navigate your situation and make the best decision for you. Due to our current caseload, we are unfortunately not able to offer appointments for employment-related issues right now. Please see our Know Your Rights guides for information about your rights at work. Tell us about your situation. We have trained legal advocates and lawyers on staff to guide you through your legal issue.

    Note: Due to limited capacity, our staff can currently only assist new clients with select issues at school or related to education. We hope to re-open our employment-related intakes soon. Por el volumen de nuestros casos, desafortunadamente no podemos ofrecer citas nuevas por cualquier problema relacionada a empleo en este momento. Nota: Por nuestra capacidad limitada, nuestros empleados solo pueden ayudar a los clientes nuevos que tienen problems harassed relaciada a la escuela.

    Esperamos que podemos abrir de nuevo las citas de empleo muy pronto. What is it? I harassed that if I didn't do it, none of the other girls were going to do it. And I had to make sure that we weren't going to go through that anymore. What are the laws? Federal Law Legally, workplace sexual harassment is considered a form of sex discrimination, so sexual harassment is illegal across the country.

    Sexual harassment is illegal. Harassed harassment can happen to anyone. It is about power, not sexual desire. Title VII applies to employers. It is designed to make employers accountable for providing a work environment that is free from harassment and other kinds of discrimination.

    It does not make it illegal for someone to harass someone else. So sexually civil rights law does not give you a right to sue an individual person — unless that individual person is your employer. Retaliation is also illegal. Examples of retaliation in the workplace include being fired or demoted, receiving a pay cut or a reduction in harassed hours or benefits, sexually assigned a different shift, location, position, receiving new or different duties, or being asked to take time off without pay.

    Retaliation can also be subtle, build up, or get worse over time. Examples sexually being iced out by coworkers, no longer being invited to meetings, or being left off of communications you were formerly on. If harassde harassed sexual harassment, your employer cannot ignore you or retaliate against you. If you complained or told your boss, HR, or another manager about sexual harassment, and they failed to do anything to make the situation better or made it worseyou could consider taking legal action.

    California In addition to the above, California has additional sexual harassment laws that give you even more protection. At harassed, employers must have a written policy on sexual harassment that tells workers where and how to report or complain about it. California employers with 5 or more employees must provide sexual harassment prevention training to employees and supervisors at least once every 2 years.

    What are my rights? You have the right to: 1. In California, your employer must have a written policy on harassment, and must make sure every employee knows the policy exists and gets a copy. The policy should be written in a language that employees understand.

    In states that have sexually own anti-discrimination laws and agencies, including California, the deadline to file a discrimination complaint may be different. For more, see the What Can I Do? What can I do? Write everything down. Include as much detail as possible, and keep notes about every time it happens or happened.

    What is sexual harassment?